Black History - UK & African American

Black History - UK & African American


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  • Leading Figures in the UK
  • Leading Activists in the USA
  • Black History Month
  • Slavery in the USA
  • Civil Rights in the USA
  • Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
  • Black Footballers
  • Racism and Football

The importance of black history and why it should be celebrated beyond February

Carter G. Woodson started the tradition of celebrating black history.

What does Black History Month mean to you?

In 1925, Harvard-trained historian Carter G. Woodson, known as the "Father of Black History," had a bold idea.

That year, he announced "Negro History Week" -- a celebration of a people that many in this country at the time believed had no place in history.

The response to the event, first celebrated in February 1926, a month that included the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass, was overwhelming -- as educators, scholars and philanthropists stepped forward to endorse the effort. Fifty years later, coinciding with nation's bicentennial and in the wake of the civil rights movement, the celebration was expanded to a month after President Gerald R. Ford decreed a national observance.

Since Woodson's death in 1950, the organization that he founded, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History -- now called the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) -- has fought to keep his legacy alive.

Now, nearly 105 years after its founding, one of the organization's biggest challenges is keeping people engaged beyond February.

"One cannot discuss the African American freedom struggle or the civil rights movement without paying attention to white allies who were working alongside black people," Lionel Kimble, vice president for programs at ASALH, told ABC News. "One of the biggest issues we see, especially for those non-black folks, is that the emphasis on black history is divisive and some mistakenly label it 'racist.'"

"But, if we continue to emphasize that all Americans worked towards these common goals, then everyone can see themselves as part of the larger mission."

ASALH, which holds events to promote and celebrate black history all throughout the year, said the organization has made major gains toward promoting African American history to a wider audience, but there are still too many who only recognize black history during the month of February and ignore it for the rest of the year.

"It's disappointing," Kimble said. "But we have to really build on the study of black history and get people to understand the important roles of black folks in the larger narrative of the United States."

Noelle Trent, director of interpretation, collections and education at the National Civil Rights Museum, said it's wonderful to mobilize for Black History Month festivities, but "there's no one season for it. It's continuous."

"We do black history 365 days a year," Trent told ABC News. "We're telling the story of the African American struggle for civil rights, for human rights, and all aspects, through our programming and through our exhibition in various capacities throughout the year."

The museum, which is located at the former Lorraine Motel in Memphis where civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in 1968, said it pays special attention to Black History Month and uses it as a time to emphasize educating children about black heritage. The museum specializes in the civil rights era, but Trent said Woodson's mission guides just about all of their initiatives.

"When 'Negro History Week' was founded, black history was not being talked about or written about and people were saying African Americans had no presence in history," Trent said. "What we're able to do here at the museum today through our work is really amplify that historical presence."

"Woodson was dedicated to making African American history accessible to the everyday person. He wanted African Americans, and all Americans, really, to know the African American story and to see themselves in it because representation is power," she added.

As a part of her work with the museum, Trent said she is frustrated that black history tends to be ignored by popular culture once February ends. Instead, she thinks Black History Month should be seen as a "starting point" for a larger conversation about how to incorporate black history into American history as a whole.

"I understand that culturally organizations are in different places, but ideally in 2020 we would like people to be more inclusive. But if you start just doing it in February, then the next step is, how can we incorporate this into other days of the year," she said.

If companies, schools and other organizations "keep relegating the story to just February," they're missing the point of Black History Month, according to Trent.

Kimble, of ASALH, said the organization has seen a growing number of partnership interests from corporate donors and organizations that aren't necessarily "black oriented," as more companies look to address issues surrounding diversity and inclusion.

He said the increase is "very encouraging," but it isn't enough to indicate a significant trend just yet.

"I would like to companies do more," Trent said. "But all we can do is keep pushing and educating folks who have an interest in black history and black studies."

ASALH picks a theme each year to bring to the public's attention important developments that merit emphasis. This year's theme is "African Americans and the Vote."

The year 2020 marks the centennial of the 19th Amendment and the culmination of the women’s suffrage movement. It also marks the sesquicentennial of the 15th Amendment, which gave black men the right to vote in 1870, following the Civil War.

"Through voting-rights campaigns and legal suits from the turn of the 20th century to the mid-1960s, African Americans made their voices heard as to the importance of the vote," ASALH says on its website. "Indeed the fight for black voting rights continues in the courts today."

Kimble said the group has events scheduled throughout the year that will deal with civic education, voter suppression, voting rights and other issues that are tethered to this year's theme, but its main goal is to engage with people outside of academia to educate them about the depth of their heritage.

"This isn't a conversation that only black folks should be having. If we look at ourselves as a diverse nation, I think everyone should have these conversations about their history," Kimble said. "We want people to see that their stories are valuable and that you don't have to be this internationally renowned figure to do great things."


Improved Ironing Board, Invented by Sarah Boone in 1892

The ironing board is a product that’s used possibly just as much as it’s overlooked. In the late 19th century, it was improved upon by Sarah Boone, an African American woman who was born enslaved. One of the first Black women in U.S. history to receive a patent, she expanded upon the original ironing board, which was essentially a horizontal wooden block originally patented in 1858. With Boone’s 1892 additions, the board featured a narrower and curved design, making it easier to iron garments, particularly women’s clothing. Boone’s design would morph into the modern ironing board that we use today.

Public Domain & AV Icons/Getty Images


Civil Rights Act Moves Through Congress

Kennedy was assassinated that November in Dallas, after which new President Lyndon B. Johnson immediately took up the cause.

“Let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined,” Johnson said in his first State of the Union address. During debate on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives, southerners argued, among other things, that the bill unconstitutionally usurped individual liberties and states’ rights.

In a mischievous attempt to sabotage the bill, a Virginia segregationist introduced an amendment to ban employment discrimination against women. That one passed, whereas over 100 other hostile amendments were defeated. In the end, the House approved the bill with bipartisan support by a vote of 290-130.

The bill then moved to the U.S. Senate, where southern and border state Democrats staged a 75-day filibuster𠅊mong the longest in U.S. history. On one occasion, Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, a former Ku Klux Klan member, spoke for over 14 consecutive hours.

But with the help of behind-the-scenes horse-trading, the bill’s supporters eventually obtained the two-thirds votes necessary to end debate. One of those votes came from California Senator Clair Engle, who, though too sick to speak, signaled 𠇊ye” by pointing to his own eye.


Black History Month - Notable Nurses Throughout History

With 2020 as the Year of the Nurse and Midwife, it’s an opportune time to give greater praise to all of the nurses out there that work tirelessly for the health and betterment of the global population.

However, we shouldn’t have to wait for “our year” to give credit where credit is due, but unfortunately, the indefatigable work of the nursing community often goes under appreciated (at least publicly). With nearly 10% of the nursing community identifying as Black or African American, that’s over 350,000 registered nurses and LPNs working today that are deserving of more public acknowledgement.

Today, we are fortunate to have representative bodies such as the National Black Nurses Association to help support minority nurse leaders in leading the charge to a healthier global community, but it wasn’t always this way.

Given that February is Black History Month, let’s take a look back in history to recognize the incredible Black and African American foremothers and forefathers of nursing, who had to deal with a lot more than just cumbersome EHR systems.

James Derham (1762-Early 1800s)

James Derham was the first African American to formally practice medicine in the United States as both a nurse and physician. Born into slavery in Philadelphia, Derham eventually served under Dr. John Kearsley, who taught him about compound medicine, professional bedside manner, and the basics of throat medicine. He was then transferred two more times before receiving his freedom in New Orleans and opening up his own practice, the first documented medical practice run and owned by an African American.

Sojourner Truth (1797-1883)

Sojourner Truth (born Isabella Baumfree) was born into slavery in 1797. She is most commonly known for her work as an abolitionist, advocate and speaker for women’s rights, and the first Black woman to win a court case vying for the returned ownership (freedom) of her son. She also spent years serving as a nurse. She is most praised for her speech given in 1851, entitled “Ain’t I a Woman?,” in which she demanded equal rights for all women as well as all African Americans.

Mary Jane Seacole (1805-1881)

Mary Seacole was a British-Jamaican nurse and entrepreneur. Some call her the Jamaican Florence Nightingale, as both cared for wounded soldiers during the Crimean War (1853-1856). After being refused for service by the British War Office, she followed the fighting herself, unofficially setting up refuge and medical assistance centers for soldiers. She was posthumously awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit in 1991 and was voted the “greatest Black Briton” in 2004.

Harriet Tubman (1822-1913)

Well known for her exploits during the American Civil War related to the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman was a strong symbol of the abolitionist movement. Born in Maryland a slave in 1822, she later escaped and made more than a dozen successful return trips to free friends and family. During the Civil War, she served the North as a nurse and spy. She was the first woman to lead an armed expedition during a time of war, liberating over 700 slaves during this time. As a nurse in Port Royal, she treated soldiers with dysentery and smallpox using remedies created with local plants and herbs as well as whatever she had available she was truly a resource Jane-of-all-trades.

Mary Eliza Mahoney (1845-1926)

Mary Eliza Mahoney, the second African American to work professionally as a nurse in the United States, was also one of the first African Americans to graduate from nursing school. She fought discriminatory practices in the medical profession and started the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses alongside Adah Thoms (in 1951 merging with the American Nurses Association). She set the standard for what formally educated African American nurses could achieve and made sure that they were able to do so given a racially prejudiced society. Since her death, she has been inducted into both the American Nurses Hall of Fame as well as the National Women’s Hall of Fame.

Susie King Taylor (1848-1912)

Susie King Taylor, the first Black Army nurse, supported an all-Black Civil War volunteer infantry regiment (Union) from South Carolina. She was unpaid for her service and was the only African American at the time to write a memoir of her wartime experiences, entitled Reminiscences of My Life in Camp with the 33rd United States Colored Troops, Late 1st S.C. Volunteers. She taught many of the soldiers how to read and write during their off-duty hours and was the first African American to publicly teach at a school for former slaves in Georgia.

Jesse Sleet Scales (1865-1956)

Jesse Scales, the first public health nurse in the United States, is known today by many as one of the earliest health nurse pioneers. She became the first black district nurse at the Charity Organization Society, where she was tasked with educating and persuading the African American community in New York City to receive much-needed treatment for tuberculosis, something that plagued this community at the time. She also co-founded the Stillman House alongside Elizabeth Tyler, striving to advance poor health conditions in much of the urban Black community.

Adah Belle Samuel Thoms (1870-1943)

Adah Thoms co-founded the the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (alongside Mary Mahoney and Martha Franklin), was director at the Lincoln School for Nurses in New York, and was an active proponent of African Americans serving as Red Cross nurses during World War I and eventually gaining the ability to join the Army Nurse Corps. Before her retirement in 1923, she had served as head nurse of a surgical ward, head nurse of a hospital, superintendent of nursing, and director of nursing.

Martha Minerva Franklin (1870-1968)

Martha Franklin was one of the earliest individuals to publicly campaign for racial equality in nursing. She also performed one of the first national studies on the status of Black nurses, where she sent letters to more than 500 nurses across the country to gain insight into their respective experiences and situations. She found that while African American nurses could join the American Nurses Association (at a national level), many state nursing associations remained closed off to African Americans. With the support of Adah Thomas and Mary Maloney, Franklin held the first meeting of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses in New York, the goal being to improve training, reduce racial inequality, and cultivate leaders for and within the Black nursing community.

Mabel Keaton Staupers (1890-1989)

Born in Barbados in 1890, Mabel Staupers moved with her parents to New York in 1903 at thirteen years old. She attended nursing school in Washington, DC, graduating with honors and working as a private duty nurse. She fought publicly for the inclusion of African American nurses in the Army and Navy during World War II. Because of her efforts, the Army Forces Nurses Corps opened its doors to all qualified applicants, regardless of race, in 1945. She also worked to combat the outbreak of tuberculosis among African Americans at the time by establishing the Booker T. Washington Sanatorium.

Estelle Massey Osborne (1901-1981)

Estelle Osborne (Riddle) was another major figure in fighting to eliminate the racial prejudices Black and African American nurses faced during this time. She was also notably the first African American to receive a master’s degree in nursing education in 1931. During World War II, she was named a consultant to the National Nursing Council for War Service, during which time she worked with nursing schools to remove discriminatory policies. In 1945, she became the first African American instructor in the nursing department of New York University.

Lillian Holland Harvey (1912-1994)

Lillian Harvey received a bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degree in nursing by 1966. She became the director of nurse training at the Tuskegee School for Nurses in 1945, becoming the dean of the school in 1948. She turned the school’s diploma program into a baccalaureate one, the first of its kind in Alabama. She also worked to increase Black and African American nurses’ involvement in World War II efforts, creating more opportunities within the Army Nurse Corps.

Mary Elizabeth Carnegie (1916-2008)

Mary Carnegie was a clinical educator and author in nursing. She was the first African American to act as a voting member on the board of a state (Florida) nursing association. She received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in nursing as well as a doctorate in public administration. She spent much of her working years as a clinical instructor, also serving as professor and dean of the nursing school at Florida A&M University. She also acted as president of the American Academy of Nursing and was inducted into the American Nurses Association hall of fame.

Hazel W. Johnson-Brown (1927-2011)

As well as a nurse educator who served in the United States Army from 1955-1983, Hazel Johnson-Brown, was also the first African American female general in the Army and the first Black chief of the Army Nurse Corps. When she finally retired from the Army, she led the American Nurse Association’s governmental relations team and taught at George Mason University’s Center for Health Policy.

Betty Smith Williams (1929-present)

Dr. Betty Smith Williams is a lifetime educator with over 50 years of teaching and research experience. She was the first African American nurse hired as an educator in higher education in the state of California. She was a professor at Mount Saint Mary’s College, UCLA, and California State Long Beach Assistant Dean at the School of Nursing at UCLA Dean and professor at the School of Nursing at University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and, the Founding Dean at the School of Nursing at the American University of Health Sciences. She was also a co-founder and charter member of the National Black Nurses Association in 1971.

So, here’s to nurses—especially the incredible figures throughout history, some of which are mentioned above—and to the Year of the Nurse and Midwife! Let’s get out there and show the world just how much nurses are capable of!


Fact #1: As a child, Muhammad Ali was refused an autograph by his boxing idol, Sugar Ray Robinson . When Ali became a prizefighter, he vowed to never to deny an autograph request, which he honored throughout his career.

Fact #2:ਊli , the self-proclaimed "greatest [boxer] of all time," was originally named after his father, who was named after the 19th-century abolitionist and politicianꃊssius Marcellus Clay .

Fact #3: Allensworth is the first all-Black Californian township, founded and financed by African Americans. Created by Lieutenant Colonel Allen Allensworth in 1908, the town was built with the intention of establishing a self-sufficient city where African Americans could live their lives free of racial prejudice.

Fact #4: Jazz, an African American musical form born out of the blues, ragtime and marching bands, originated in Louisiana during the turn of the 19th century. The word "jazz" is a slang term that at one point referred to a sexual act.

Fact #5: During the 1930s, painter Charles Alston founded the 306 group, which convened in his studio space and provided support and apprenticeship for African American artists, including Langston Hughes sculptor Augusta Savage and mixed-media visionary Romare Bearden .

Fact #6: Before Wally Amos became famous for his "Famous Amos" chocolate chip cookies, he was a talent agent at the William Morris Agency, where he worked with the likes of The Supremesਊnd Simon & Garfunkel.

Fact #7: Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on friend Maya Angelou&aposs birthday, on April 4, 1968. Angelou stopped celebrating her birthday for years afterward, and sent flowers to King&aposs widow, Coretta Scott King , for more than 30 years, until Coretta&aposs death in 2006.

Fact #8: Louis Armstrong learned how to play the cornet while living at the Colored Waif&aposs Home for Boys.

Photo: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Fact #9:ਊrmstrong earned the nickname "Satchmo" which was a shortened version of the moniker "satchel mouth."

Fact #10: After a long career as an actress and singer, Pearl Bailey earned a bachelor&aposs degree in theology from Georgetown University in 1985.

Fact #11: After African American performer Josephine Baker਎xpatriated to France, she famously smuggled military intelligence to French allies during World War II. She did this by pinning secrets inside her dress, as well as hiding them in her sheet music.

Fact #12: Scientist and mathematician Benjamin Banneker is credited with helping to design the blueprints for Washington, D.C.

Fact #13: Before he was a renowned artist, Romare Bearden was also a talented baseball player. He was recruited by the Philadelphia Athletics on the pretext that he would agree to pass as white. He turned down the offer, instead choosing to work on his art.

Fact #14: Though he is of Caribbean ancestry and had a trailblazing smash with his 1956 album Calypso, Harry Belafonte was actually born in the United States. The internationally renowned entertainment icon and human rights activist is from Harlem, New York.

Fact #15: Musician and activistꂾlafonte originally devised the idea for "We Are the World," a single that he hoped would help raise money for famine relief in Africa. The song was a huge success, going multi-platinum and bringing in millions of dollars.

Fact #16: Before becoming a professional musician, Chuck Berry  studied to be a hairdresser.

Fact #17: Chuck Berry&aposs famous "duck walk" dance originated in 1956 when he attempted to hide wrinkles in his trousers by shaking them out with his now-signature body movements.

Fact #18: The parents of actress Halle Berry chose their daughter&aposs name from Halle&aposs Department Store, a local landmark in her birthplace of Cleveland, Ohio.

Fact #19: In 1938, first lady Eleanor Roosevelt challenged the segregation rules at the Southern Conference on Human Welfare in Birmingham, Alabama, so she could sit next to African American educator and activist Mary McLeod Bethune . Roosevelt would come to refer to Bethune as "her closest friend in her age group."

James Brown with Ed Sullivan

Photo: CBS Photo Archive/Getty Images

Fact #20: Legendary singer James Brown performed in front of a televised audience in Boston the day after Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated. Brown is often given credit for preventing further riots with the performance.

Fact #21: Chester Arthur "Howlin&apos Wolf" Burnett was one of the world&aposs most important blues singers, songwriters and musicians, influencing popular rock acts like the Rolling Stones and Eric Clapton. Howlin&apos Wolf maintained financial success throughout his life, held a stable marriage and worked for charitable causes in his Chicago community.

Fact #22: Female science fiction author Octavia Butler was dyslexic. Despite her disorder, she went on to win Hugo and Nebula awards for her writing, as well as a "genius" grant from the MacArthur Foundation.

Fact #23: When African American neurosurgeon Ben Carson was a child, his mother required him to read two library books a week and give her written reports, even though she was barely literate. She would then take the papers and pretend to carefully review them, placing a checkmark at the top of the page to show her approval. The assignments inspired Carson&aposs eventual love of reading and learning.

Fact #24: Politician, educator and Brooklyn native Shirley Chisholm survived three assassination attempts during her campaign for the 1972 Democratic nomination to the U.S. presidency.

Fact #25: Rap artist Chuck D graduated from Adelphi University, where he studied graphic design.

Fact #26: Dr. Mayme A. Clayton, a Los Angeles librarian and historian, amassed an extensive and valuable collection of Black Americana now found in a museum that houses an estimated 3.5 million items. The collection includes works from a wide range of luminaries, including Countee Cullen , Marcus Garvey , Zora Neale Hurston and Lena Horne .

Fact #27: Before lawyer Johnnie Cochran achieved nationwide fame for his role in the O.J. Simpson trial, actor Denzel Washington interviewed Cochran as part of his research for the award-winning film Philadelphia (1993).

Fact #28: Record sales from musician and singer Nat King Cole contributed so greatly to Capitol Records&apos success during the 1950s that its headquarters became known as "the house that Nat built."

Fact #29: The Saint John Coltrane African Orthodox Church in San Francisco, California, uses jazz musician John Coltrane&aposs music and philosophy as sources for religious discovery.

Fact #30: Paul Cuffee, a philanthropist, ship captain and devout Quaker who supported a return to Africa for Black citizens, transported 38 free African Americans to Sierra Leone in 1815. He also founded one of the first American integrated schools in 1797.

Fact #31: Tice Davids, a runaway enslaved person from Kentucky, may have been the inspiration for the first usage of the term "Underground Railroad," though the origins of the term are shrouded in mystery. According to reports, after Davids swam across the Ohio River, his "owner" was unable to find him. He allegedly told the local paper that if Davids had escaped, he must have traveled on "an underground railroad." Davids is thought to have made his way to Ripley, Ohio.

Fact #32: At a time when universities did not typically offer financial assistance to Black athletes, African American football star Ernie Davis was offered more than 50 scholarships.

Fact #33: Thomas Andrew Dorsey, considered the "Father of Gospel Music," was known for his fusion of sacred words and secular rhythms. His most famous composition, "Take My Hand, Precious Lord," was recorded by the likes of Elvis Presley and Mahalia Jackson .

Photo: Keystone/Getty Images

Fact #34: W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter founded The Niagara Movement, a Black civil rights organization that got its name from the group&aposs meeting location, Niagara Falls.

Fact #35: Du Bois died one day before Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech at the March on Washington (August 28, 1963).

Fact #36: Before he wrote the acclaimed novel Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison served as a cook in the Merchant Marines during World War II.

Fact #37: Shortly before his mysterious disappearance in 1934, Wallace D. Fard founded the Nation of Islam.

Fact #38: Ella Fitzgerald , known for having a remarkable three-octave range, got her start at the Apollo Theater.

Fact #39: After friend and musical partner Tammi Terrell died of a brain tumor, a grieving Marvin Gaye recorded his future hit single "What&aposs Goin&apos On," having Detroit Lions&apos athletes Lem Barney and Mel Farr lay down vocals for the song&aposs intro. Gaye later met with Lions&apos coach Joe Schmidt to propose the idea of playing for the team, which Schmidt turned down.

Fact #40: Nancy Green, who was formerly enslaved, was employed in the 1890s to promote the Aunt Jemima brand by demonstrating the pancake mix at expositions and fairs. She was a popular attraction because of her friendly personality, storytelling skills and warmth. Green signed a lifetime contract with the pancake company, and her image was used for packaging and ads.

Jimi Hendrix in the audience at a Martin Luther King, Jr. benefit in New York City in June 1968, a few months after the civil rights leader&aposs assassination.

Fact #41: Famed guitarist Jimi Hendrix was known by close friends and family members simply as "Buster."

Fact #42: Josiah Henson fled slavery in Maryland in 1830 and later founded a settlement in Ontario, Canada, for other Black citizens who had escaped. His autobiography, The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself (1849), is believed to have been Harriet Beecher Stowe&aposs inspiration for the main character in Uncle Tom&aposs Cabin.

Fact #43: African American Matthew Henson accompanied Robert Edwin Peary on the first successful U.S. expedition to the North Pole, reaching their destination on April 6, 1909. In 2000, Henson was posthumously awarded the National Geographic Society&aposs Hubbard Medal.

Fact #44: "Strange Fruit," the song about Black lynching in the south made famous by blues singer Billie Holiday , was originally a poem written by Abel Meeropol, a Jewish schoolteacher from the Bronx, New York.

Fact #45: The father of renowned scribe Langston Hughes ਍iscouraged his son from writing, wanting him to take up a more "practical" vocation.

Fact #46: Jesse Jackson successfully negotiated the release of Lieutenant Robert O. Goodman Jr., an African American pilot who had been shot down over Syria and taken hostage in 1983.

Fact #47: The "King of Pop," Michael Jackson , co-wrote the single "We Are the World" with Motown legend Lionel Richie . The track became one of the best-selling singles of all time, earning millions of dollars donated to famine relief in Africa.

Fact #48: Abolitionist Harriet Ann Jacobs published Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl in 1861 under the pseudonym Linda Brent. The book chronicles the hardships and sexual abuse she experienced as a woman growing up in slavery. Jacobs fled slavery in 1835 by hiding in a crawlspace in her grandmother&aposs attic for seven years before traveling to Philadelphia by boat, and eventually to New York.

Fact #49: Rapper Jay-Z reportedly developed his stage name as a reference to New York&aposs J/Z subway lines, which have a stop in his Bed-Stuy, Brooklyn, neighborhood.

Fact #50: The popular clothing line FUBU stands for "For Us, By Us." It was originally created by designer Daymond John along with three other friends and was supported by fellow Queens native LL Cool J .

Fact #51: Jack Johnson , the first African American heavyweight champion, patented a wrench in 1922.

Fact #52: After the success of Negro Digest, publisher John H. Johnson decided to create a magazine to showcase Black achievement while also looking at current issues affecting African Americans. The first issue of his publication, Ebony, sold out in a matter of hours.

Fact #53: The theme song for the groundbreaking African American sitcom Sanford and Sons was composed by music great Quincy Jones .

Fact #54: Before he became an NBA legend, Michael Jordan was cut from his high school basketball team.

Fact #55: Chaka Kahn , dubbed the "Queen of Funk Soul," is also well known for singing the theme song to the public television&aposs popular educational program Reading Rainbow.

Fact #56: Alicia Keys was accepted into Columbia University on a full scholarship, but decided to pursue a full-time music career instead.

Fact #57: In her early life, Coretta Scott King was as well known for her singing and violin playing as she was for her civil rights activism. The young soprano won a fellowship to the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where she met future husband Martin Luther King Jr.

Fact #58: Martin Luther King Jr. was stabbed by a woman in 1958 while attending a book signing at Blumstein&aposs department store in Harlem, New York. The following year, King and his wife visited India to meet Mahatma Gandhi , whose philosophies of nonviolence greatly influenced King&aposs work.

Fact #59: Lewis Howard Latimer drafted patent drawings for Alexander Graham Bell&aposs telephone while working at a patent law firm. 

Fact #60: In 1967, chemist and scholar Robert H. Lawrence Jr. became the first Black man to be trained as an astronaut. Sadly, Lawrence died in a jet crash during flight training and never made it into space.

Fact #61: Heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis helped to end segregation in the U.S. armed forces while serving in the Army during World War II.

Fact #61: Nat "Deadwood Dick" Love, a renowned and skilled cowboy, wrote his autobiographical work The Life and Adventures of Nat Love, Better Known in the Cattle Country as Deadwood Dick, published in 1907.

Fact #62: African American fashion designer Ann Lowe designed the wedding dress of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, the bride of future President John F. Kennedy.

Fact #63: Jazz pianist and composer Alice McLeod married pioneering saxophonist John Coltrane in 1965. She played with his band and appeared on his later recordings.

Fact #64: Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall said that he was punished for misbehavior in school by being forced to recite the Constitution, ultimately memorizing it.

Fact #65: Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was a classmate of jazz vocalist Cab Calloway, Harlem Renaissance writer Langston Hughes and future Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah during their studies at Lincoln University.

Fact #66: Buffalo Soldiers— a name given by Native-American plainsmen—were the all-Black regiments created in the U.S. Army beginning in 1866. These soldiers received second-class treatment and were often given the worst military assignments, but had the lowest desertion rate than their white counterparts. More than 20 Buffalo Soldiers received the Medal of Honor for their service. The oldest living Buffalo Soldier, Sergeant Mark Matthews, died at the age of 111 in 2005 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Fact #67: The Loew&aposs Grand Theatre on Peachtree Street in Atlanta, Georgia, was selected to air the premiere of the film Gone with the Wind in 1939. All of the film&aposs Black actors, including future Academy Award winner Hattie McDaniel , were barred from attending.

Fact #68: George Monroe and William Robinson are thought to be two of the first African Americans to work as Pony Express riders.

Fact #69: Pony Express rider George Monroe was also a highly skilled stagecoach driver for U.S. presidents Ulysses S. Grant , James Garfield and Rutherford B. Hayes. Monroe, who was known as "Knight of the Sierras," frequently navigated passengers through the curving Wanona Trail in the Yosemite Valley. As a result, Monroe Meadows in Yosemite National Park is named after him.

Fact #70: Garrett Morgan, the inventor of the three-way traffic signal, also became the first African American to own a car in Cleveland, Ohio.

Fact #71: Jockey Isaac Burns Murphy was the first to win three Kentucky Derbies and the only racer to win the Kentucky Derby, the Kentucky Oaks and the Clark Handicap within the same year. He was inducted into the National Museum of Racing&aposs Hall of Fame in 1956.

Fact #72: For a time during his youth, future U.S. President Barack Obama used the moniker "Barry."

Fact #73: Barack Obama has won two Grammy Awards. He was first honored in 2005 for the audio version of his memoir, Dreams from My Father (best spoken word album), and received his second Grammy (in the same category) in 2007 for his political work, The Audacity of Hope.

Fact #74: In 1881, Sophia B. Packard and Harriet E. Giles founded what would become the first college for Black women in the United States. The school was named Spelman College after Laura Spelman Rockefeller and her parents, who were abolitionists. Laura was also the wife of John D. Rockefeller , who made a significant donation to the school.

Fact #75: Legendary baseball player Satchel Paige would travel as many as 30,000 miles a year to pitch as a free agent, to locales that included Cuba and the Dominican Republic. In 1971, Paige also became the first African American pitcher to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Fact #76: Bill Pickett, a renowned rodeo performer, was inducted into the National Cowboy Hall of Fame in 1971, the first African American to receive the honor. He was also recognized by the U.S. Postal service as one of the 20 "Legends of the West" in a series of stamps.

Fact #77: Since 1997, actor and director Sidney Poitier has served as non-resident Bahamian ambassador to Japan.

Fact #78: In addition to her career in Washington, D.C.,਌ondoleezza Rice is an accomplished pianist who has accompanied cellist Yo-Yo Ma, played with soul singerਊretha Franklin and performed for Queen Elizabeth II .

Fact #79: A serious student, Condoleezza Rice entered the University of Denver at the age of 15 and earned her Ph.D. by age 26.

Fact #80: At the very peak of his fame, rock &aposn&apos roll pioneer Little Richard ਌oncluded that his music was the Devil&aposs work and subsequently became a traveling preacher, focusing on gospel tunes. When the Beatles revived several of his songs in 1964, Little Richard returned to the rock stage.

Fact #81: Actor, singer and civil rights activist Paul Robeson was once considered for a U.S. vice presidential spot on Henry A. Wallace&aposs 1948 Progressive Party ticket.

Fact #82: An heirloom tomato variety originating in Russia is named after actor, athlete and civil rights activist Paul Robeson , who enjoyed and spoke highly of Russian culture.

Fact #83: Performer Paul Robeson was conversant in many different languages.

Fact #84: African American baseball legend Jackie Robinson had an older brother, Matthew, who won a silver medal in the 200-meter dash at the 1936 Olympics. He came in second to Jesse Owens .

Fact #85: Before Branch Rickey offered future Hall-of-Famer Jackie Robinson the contract that integrated professional baseball, he personally tested Robinson&aposs reactions to the racial slurs and insults he knew the player would endure.

Fact #86: After retiring from baseball, Hall-of-Famer Jackie Robinson helped establish the African American-owned and -controlled Freedom Bank.

Jackie Robinson, his wife Rachel and their son Jackie Jr. posing by their car in Brooklyn, New York in July 1949.

Photo: Nina Leen:Time & Life Pictures:Getty Images

Fact #87: In 1944 in Fort Hood, Texas, future baseball legend Jackie Robinson , who was serving as a lieutenant for the U.S. Army at the time, refused to give up his seat and move to the back of a bus when ordered to by the driver. Robinson dealt with racial slurs and was court-martialed, but was ultimately acquitted. His excellent reputation, combined with the united efforts of friends, the NAACP and various Black newspapers, shed public light on the injustice. Robinson requested to be discharged soon afterward.

Fact #88: Before becoming a professional baseball player, Jackie Robinson played football for the Honolulu Bears.

Fact #89: Ray Charles Robinson , a musical genius and pioneer in blending gospel and the blues, shortened his name to Ray Charles to prevent confusion with the great boxer Sugar Ray Robinson . Ray Charles began losing his sight at an early age and was completely blind by the time he was 7, but never relied upon a cane or guide dog. He was one of the first inductees into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at its inaugural ceremony in 1986.

Fact #90: Reverend Al Sharpton preached his first sermon at the age of 4, and later toured with world-famous gospel singer Mahalia Jackson.

Fact #91: Joseph "Run" Simmons of Run-D.M.C. is the brother of hip-hop promoter and mogul Russell Simmons .

Fact #92: Upon her death in 2003, singer Nina Simone&aposs ashes were spread across the continent of Africa, per her last request.

Fact #93: African American tap dancer Howard Sims was known as the "Sandman" because he often sprinkled sand onstage at the Apollo Theater to amplify his steps. Sims was an acclaimed dancer and footwork master whose students included Muhammad Ali, Gregory Hines and Ben Vereen.

Fact #94: Mamie Smith is considered to be the first African American female artist to make a blues record with vocals—"Crazy Blues," released in 1920, sold 1 million copies in half a year.

Fact #95: Olympic medal-winning athletes John Carlos and Tommie Smith made headlines around the world by raising their black-gloved fists at the 1968 award ceremony. Both athletes wore black socks and no shoes on the podium to represent Black poverty in America.

Fact #96: Walker Smith Jr. became known as Sugar Ray Robinson when, as an under-aged boxer, he used fellow boxer Ray Robinson&aposs Amateur Athletic Union card to fight in a show. Smith won a Golden Glove featherweight title in 1939 under the assumed name and continued using it thereafter, with the additional "Sugar" coming from a reporter.

Fact #97: Considered one of the greatest boxers of all time, Sugar Ray Robinson held the world welterweight title from 1946 to 1951, and by 1958, he had become the first boxer to win a divisional world championship five times.

Fact #98: In the 1920s and &apos30s, multi-instrumentalist Valaida Snow captivated audiences with her effervescent singing and jazz trumpet playing. Her abilities earned her the nicknames "Queen of the Trumpet" and "Little Louis," in reference to the style of musician Louis Armstrong .

Fact #99: John Baxter Taylor, the first African American to win an Olympic gold medal, also held a degree in veterinary medicine from the University of Pennsylvania.

Fact #100: African American Olympic figure skating medalist Debi Thomas attended Stanford University and later studied medicine at Northwestern University, becoming an orthopedic surgeon.

Fact #101: In addition to being a millionaire entrepreneur, Madam C.J. Walker was a civil rights activist. In 1917, she was part of a delegation that traveled to the White House to petition President Woodrow Wilson to make lynching a federal crime.

Fact #102: Muddy Waters , known for his infusion of the electric guitar into the Delta country genre, is considered the "Father of Chicago Blues." Waters influenced some of the most popular rock acts, including the Bluesbreakers and the Rolling Stones, who named themselves after his popular 1950 song, "Rollin&apos Stone."

Fact #103: Rapper Kanye West&aposs father, Ray West𠅊 former Black Panther—was one of the first Black photojournalists at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, receiving accolades for his work.

Fact #104: The mother of rapper and producer Kanye West was an English professor before switching careers to serve as her son&aposs manager.

Fact #105: Phillis Wheatley became the first published African American poet in 1774 with her collection Poems on Various Subjects, a work of distinction that looked to many literary classical traditions.

Fact #106: Before Forest Whitaker was a film star, he was accepted into the music conservatory at the University of Southern California to study opera as a tenor.

Fact #107: Jesse Ernest Wilkins Jr., a physicist, mathematician and engineer, earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Chicago in 1942, at age 19.

Fact #108: The "Dee" in actor Billy Dee Williams&apos name is short for his middle name, "December."

Fact #109: Cathay Williams was the first and only known female Buffalo Soldier. Williams was born into slavery and worked for the Union army during the Civil War. She posed as a man and enlisted as William Cathay in the 38th infantry in 1866, and was given a medical discharge in 1868.

Fact #110: NFL player John Williams won the Super Bowl as part of the Baltimore Colts before he eventually quit the league to become a dentist.

Fact #111: Renowned African American architect Paul R. Williams mastered the art of rendering drawings upside-down so that his clients would see the drawings right side up. Williams&aposs style became associated with California glamour, beauty and naturalism, and he joined the American Institute of Architects in 1923.

Fact #112: Because he worked during the height of segregation, most of the homes designed by African American architect Paul R. Williams had deeds that barred Black people from buying them.

Fact #113: Musician Stevie Wonder recorded the cries of his newborn daughter, Aisha Morris, for his popular song, "Isn&apost She Lovely?"

Fact #114: In 1926, Carter Godwin Woodson established Negro History Week, which later became Black History Month. The month of February was chosen in honor of Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln , who were both born in that month.

Fact #115: Explorers Lewis and Clark were accompanied by York, an African American enslaved by Clark, when they made their 1804 expedition from Missouri to Oregon. York was an invaluable member of the expedition, connecting with the Native American communities they encountered. He is considered the first African American man to cross what would become U.S. territory.

Fact #116: The Selma to Montgomery marches marked the peak of the voting rights movement in Selma, Alabama. Of the three marches, only the last made it all the way to the capital of Montgomery, Alabama, which paved the way for 1965&aposs Voting Right Act. The path is now a U.S. National Historic Trail.

Fact #117: Wilberforce University is one of the first historically African American institutions of higher learning. Located in Wilberforce, Ohio, and named after British abolitionist William Wilberforce, the school&aposs notable graduates include famed composer William Grant Still and James H. McGee, the first African American mayor of Dayton, Ohio.

Fact #118: Owned by African American designer, entrepreneur and television personality Daymond John, the popular FUBU clothing line has won various awards, including an Advertising Age award, an NAACP award, the Pratt Institute Award, the EssenceAchievement Award, the Asper Award for social entrepreneurship and a citation of honor from the Queens Borough President.

Fact #119: According to the American Community Survey, in 2005, there were 2.4 million Black military veterans in the United States—the highest of any minority group.

Fact #120: In the 1800s, Philadelphia was known as the "Black Capital of Anti–Slavery" because of its strong abolitionist presence, which included groups like the Philadelphia Anti–Slavery Society.


The Overlooked Black History of Memorial Day

N owadays, Memorial Day honors veterans of all wars, but its roots are in America’s deadliest conflict, the Civil War. Approximately 620,000 soldiers died, about two-thirds from disease.

The work of honoring the dead began right away all over the country, and several American towns claim to be the birthplace of Memorial Day. Researchers have traced the earliest annual commemoration to women who laid flowers on soldiers’ graves in the Civil War hospital town of Columbus, Miss., in April 1866. But historians like the Pulitzer Prize winner David Blight have tried to raise awareness of freed slaves who decorated soldiers’ graves a year earlier, to make sure their story gets told too.

According to Blight’s 2001 book Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory, a commemoration organized by freed slaves and some white missionaries took place on May 1, 1865, in Charleston, S.C., at a former planters’ racetrack where Confederates held captured Union soldiers during the last year of the war. At least 257 prisoners died, many of disease, and were buried in unmarked graves, so black residents of Charleston decided to give them a proper burial.

In the approximately 10 days leading up to the event, roughly two dozen African American Charlestonians reorganized the graves into rows and built a 10-foot-tall white fence around them. An archway overhead spelled out “Martyrs of the Race Course” in black letters.

About 10,000 people, mostly black residents, participated in the May 1 tribute, according to coverage back then in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New York Tribune. Starting at 9 a.m., about 3,000 black schoolchildren paraded around the race track holding roses and singing the Union song “John Brown’s Body,” and were followed by adults representing aid societies for freed black men and women. Black pastors delivered sermons and led attendees in prayer and in the singing of spirituals, and there were picnics. James Redpath, the white director of freedman’s education in the region, organized about 30 speeches by Union officers, missionaries and black ministers. Participants sang patriotic songs like “America” and “We’ll Rally around the Flag” and “The Star-Spangled Banner.” In the afternoon, three white and black Union regiments marched around the graves and staged a drill.

The New York Tribune described the tribute as “a procession of friends and mourners as South Carolina and the United States never saw before.” The gravesites looked like a “one mass of flowers” and “the breeze wafted the sweet perfumes from them” and “tears of joy” were shed.

This tribute, “gave birth to an American tradition,” Blight wrote in Race and Reunion: “The war was over, and Memorial Day had been founded by African Americans in a ritual of remembrance and consecration.”

In 1996, Blight stumbled upon a New York Herald Tribune article detailing the tribute in a Harvard University archive &mdash but the origin story it told was not the Memorial Day history that many white people had wanted to tell, he argues.

About 50 years after the Civil War ended, someone at the United Daughters of the Confederacy asked the Ladies Memorial Association of Charleston to confirm that the May 1, 1865, tribute occurred, and received a reply from one S.C. Beckwith: “I regret that I was unable to gather any official information in answer to this.” Whether Beckwith actually knew about the tribute or not, Blight argues, the exchange illustrates “how white Charlestonians suppressed from memory this founding.” A 1937 book also incorrectly stated that James Redpath singlehandedly organized the tribute &mdash when in reality it was a group effort &mdash and that it took place on May 30, when it actually took place on May 1. That book also diminished the role of the African Americans involved by referring to them as “black hands which only knew that the dead they were honoring had raised them from a condition of servitude.”

The origin story that did stick involves an 1868 call from General John A. Logan, president of a Union Army veterans group, urging Americans to decorate the graves of the fallen with flowers on May 30 of that year. The ceremony that took place in Arlington National Cemetery that day has been considered the first official Memorial Day celebration. Memorial Day became a national holiday two decades later, in 1889, and it took a century before it was moved in 1968 to the last Monday of May, where it remains today. According to Blight, Hampton Park, named after Confederate General Wade Hampton, replaced the gravesite at the Martyrs of the Race Course, and the graves were reinterred in the 1880s at a national cemetery in Beaufort, S.C.

The fact that the freed slaves’ Memorial Day tribute is not as well remembered is emblematic of the struggle that would follow, as African Americans’ fight to be fully recognized for their contributions to American society continues to this day.


Society and Life

  1. First published in 1936, &ldquoNegro Motorist Green Book&rdquo was a comprehensive guide for Black travelers about locations across America&mdashand eventually overseas&mdashthat were either Black-owned or didn't engage in segregationist practices. The guide was printed for 30 years. It stopped publication in 1966, two years after the Civil Rights Act was passed.
  2. The oldest Black female Greek-letter organization, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. (AKA), was founded at Howard University in 1908. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. (Alpha), the first Black male Greek-letter organization, was founded in 1906 at Cornell University.
  3. It's estimated that around 100,000 enslaved people escaped to the North via the Underground Railroad from 1810 to 1850.
  4. In July 1777, Vermont became the first colony to ban slavery.
  5. In 1738, a group of newly freed men and women founded the town Gracia Real De Santa Teresa De Mose, Florida. Just two miles away from St. Augustine, it's considered to be the first-ever free Black settlement in the U.S., but was abandoned following the Seven Years' War in 1763.

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Black History Month Recipes

Chef Joe Randall&rsquos Sautéed Shrimp Cakes Photo by Raya Sfeir

The Museum’s James Beard Award-nominated Sweet Home Café has created a special menu for Black History Month. Among the recipes featured here are sautéed shrimp cakes, barbeque ribs, and apple pie. Be sure to check the Museum’s event page for more programs honoring the nation's African American culinary legends.

Chef Joe Randall’s Sautéed Shrimp Cakes with Herb Mustard Sauce

Yield: 8 servings

Ingredients:

2 pounds (10 to 15 jumbo shrimp)

1 tablespoon chopped fresh dill weed

1 teaspoon fresh lemon juice

3 cups fresh bread crumbs

Instructions:

Peel and devein shrimp and remove tails. Place half of the shrimp meat in a food processor fitted with metal blade. Puree smooth 1 to 2 minutes. Add the egg whites and puree for 1 minute longer. Pour the mixture into a large bowl and stir in the mayonnaise, dill, mustard, lemon juice, salt, and pepper to taste. Mix well. Chop the remaining shrimp coarsely and add to the mixture. Form into six cakes (each about 3 1/2 ounces) about 1-inch thick. Coat each cake with fresh bread crumbs. Heat the oil in a cast iron skillet over medium high heat. Fry shrimp cakes 3 to 4 minutes on both sides or until golden brown. Drain on paper towels.

Chef Patrick Clark’s Barbecued Ribs Photo by Raya Sfeir

Chef Patrick Clark’s Barbecued Ribs with Spicy Coleslaw and Buttermilk-Chile Corn Muffins

Yield: 6 servings

Ingredients:

2 tablespoons Old Bay Seasoning

1 teaspoon cayenne pepper

2 tablespoons chile powder

2 teaspoons garlic powder

2 slabs of pork ribs (3 pounds or less), underflap removed

Buttermilk-Chile Corn Muffins

2 tablespoons chopped chives

Instructions:

Sift the spices, salt, and sugar together into a bowl. Combine the spice mixture and vinegar to make a paste. Rub the paste into the meat, cover, wrap in plastic, and refrigerate overnight. Preheat the oven to 250°. Unwrap the ribs and place on an aluminum foil-lined sheet pan. Bake for 3 1/2 hours. Do not turn the meat. Heat a grill until very hot. Remove the ribs from the oven and allow to rest for 10 minutes. Place the ribs on the grill top side down for 2 to 3minutes, or until the fat starts to sizzle. Turn the ribs over and brush with the barbecue sauce. Cook for 1 minute. Turn the ribs over and brush with barbecue sauce. Remove the meat from the grill and cut the ribs into 3- to 4-rib pieces. Place a mound of coleslaw on the side of each plate. Arrange a piece of the ribs leaning against the coleslaw and place 2 muffins next to the ribs. Place a ramekin of barbecue sauce on each plate and sprinkle the coleslaw with the chives.

Chef Edna Lewis’s Fried Apple Pie

Ingredients:

3 tablspoons cold unsalted butter, cut into ½ inch cubes

3 tablespoons cold vegetable shortening (preferably trans fat free), cut into ½ pieces

1 large egg, lightly beaten

4 to 5 tablespoons ice water

4 ½ ounces unsulfured dried apples (2 cups)

2 cups unfiltered apple cider

2 ½ tablespoons packed light brown sugar

1 teaspoon grated lemon zest

Frying and Serving:

About 2 quarts vegetable oil

Confectioners sugar for dusting

Instructions:

Blend together flour, butter, shortening, baking powder, and salt in a bowl with your fingertips or a pastry blender (or pulse in a food processor) until mixture just resembles coarse meal. Whisk egg with 1/4 cup ice water, then drizzle evenly over flour mixture and gently stir with a fork until incorporated.

Squeeze a small handful: If it doesn't hold together, add more ice water, 1/2 tablespoon at a time, stirring (or pulsing) until incorporated.

Gather dough and knead just until smooth, 3 or 4 times, on a lightly floured surface (do not overwork, or pastry will be tough). Form dough into 2 (5-inch) disks and chill, wrapped in plastic wrap, until firm, at least 1 hour.

Briskly simmer all filling ingredients and a pinch of salt in a heavy medium saucepan, uncovered, stirring occasionally and mashing apples with a potato masher as they soften, until a thick purée forms, about 20 minutes. Cool completely.

Divide 1 disk of dough into 6 equal pieces. Roll out 1 piece on a lightly floured surface with a lightly floured rolling pin into a 6-inch round, then put 2 heaping tablespoons of filling in center. Lightly moisten edge with water and fold dough over to form a half-circle, pressing out air around filling, then pressing edge to seal. Transfer to a large sheet of parchment paper and press floured tines of a fork around edge. Make more pies with remaining dough and filling (you may have some filling left over).

Set a cooling rack on a large baking sheet or tray. Heat 2 inches of oil in a 4- to 5-quart heavy pot (preferably cast-iron) over medium heat until it registers 360 to 370°F on thermometer. Fry pies, 3 or 4 at a time, turning occasionally, until deep golden-brown, 7 to 8 minutes per batch. Transfer to rack to drain. Return oil to 360 to 370°F between batches. Dust warm pies with confectioners’ sugar before serving.

For more on the new wave of African American chefs safeguarding southern foodways, see the Museum blog post "African American Culinary Chefs."


Black History

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Black Americans of the 1960s were fighting to define their future and themselves on their own terms EBONY was there to capture the journey.

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I boarded my Saturday morning flight from Newark, headed to Tulsa, with an unclear picture of what I would see when I touched down in my destination. Pieced together news stories and accounts from Black Tulsans had taught me that “Black Wall Street,” a thriving community in early 1900’s Tulsa, Oklahoma, had been decimated by

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If Quincy Jones isn’t on your list of musical G.O.A.T.s, you need to re-examine your list. Being a good storyteller comes with the whole legend thing, and the Grammy award-winning producer, composer and artist has plenty. Jones has been given the mantle of “THR Icon” by The Hollywood Reporter, and in his signature ‘tell it

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EBONY has been a portal of Black history, serving as a time capsule that has captured the essence of Black people, chronicling our stories, and bearing witness to our collective excellence, documenting not just our struggles, but also saluting our many triumphs, for 75 years and counting. Greatness was embedded in the EBONY DNA by

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The seeds for Black History Month were planted in 1926 when the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) established the second week of February as Black History Week. Historian Carter G. Woodson pioneered the idea and got a handful of education departments to recognize the week in their schools. Fast

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Black Americans of the 1960s were fighting to define their future and themselves on their own terms EBONY was there to capture the journey.

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