John Howard

John Howard


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John Howard, the son of a successful businessman, was born in Hackney, London, on 2nd September, 1726. His mother died soon after his birth and so John was sent away to boarding school in Hertford.

When he was sixteen John Howard's father died leaving him enough money to live a life of leisure. Howard spent his time travelling around the world. In 1756 the ship he was on was captured by the French. After spending time in a French prison, Howard was eventually released. Howard was shocked by the condition of dungeon in which he was imprisoned and when he arrived back in England he sent a report to the authorities detailing the sufferings of his fellow prisoners.

On 25th April 1758 John Howard married Henrietta Leeds. The marriage was successful and over the next couple of years Howard spent his time erecting high-quality cottages for his estate workers and their families. Howard was devastated when his wife died giving birth to their first child in 1765.

Howard returned to travelling the world but while in Naples in 1770 he had a religious experience which resulted in him making a promise to God that he would do whatever was required of him. Howard now became a devout Congregationalist. As a result of the Test Act passed in 1673, Howard was not allowed to hold civil or military office. However, when he was invited in February 1773, to become High Sheriff of Bedford, he accepted the post as he saw it as a way to serve God.

One of Howard's responsibilities as High Sheriff was to inspect the county prison. He was appalled by what he found at Bedford Gaol. At first Howard believed that the suffering of the prisoners was largely being caused by the system where the gaoler received money from the prisoner for his board and lodging. Howard suggested to Bedford justices that the gaoler should be paid a salary. The justices were unwilling to increase the cost of looking after prisoners and replied that the whole country used the same system.

Howard decided to carry out a tour of neighbouring prisons to see if this was the case. He discovered that all the prisons he visited were as bad if not worse that Bedford Gaol. Over the next three years travelled over 10,000 miles collecting information about the conditions in prisons. On 4th March 1774 he gave some of the evidence that he had collected to the House of Commons.

As a result of the testimony that John Howard provided, Parliament passed the 1774 Gaol Act. The terms of this legislation abolished gaolers' fees and suggested ways for improving the sanitary state of prisons and the better preservation of the health of the prisoners. Although Howard had copies of these acts printed and sent to every prison in England, the justices and the gaolers tended to ignore these new measures.

In 1775 Howard began a tour of foreign prisons. Over the next few years he visited prisons in France, Belgium, Holland, Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Switzerland, Malta, Asia Minor and Turkey. Although most of these prisons were as bad as those in England, Howard did find one that was far superior, Maison de Force in Ghent. He now used Maison de Force as an example of what other British prisons should be like. When Howard returned to England he began a second tour of its prisons to see if the reforms of the 1774 Gaol Act were being implemented.

In 1777 Howard published the result of his investigations, The State of Prisons in England and Wales, with an Account of some Foreign Prisons. The contents of Howard's book was so shocking that in some countries, such as France, the authorities refused to allow it to be published. Howard continued to inspect prisons and in March 1787 he completed his fourth tour of those in England. This was followed by the publication of An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe and Additional Remarks on the Present State of Prisons in Great Britain and Ireland.

In 1789 Howard set out once again to tour foreign prisons. He visited Holland and Germany and by December was in Russia. John Howard contracted typhus while visiting a military Russian hospital at Kherston and died on 20th January, 1790.

When I was Sheriff of the county of Bedford, and the circumstances which excited me to activity in their behalf was the seeing, some - who by the verdict of juries were declared not guilty; some on whom the Grand Jury did not find such an appearance of guilt as subjected them to trial; and some - whose prosecutors did not appear against them; after having been confined for months; dragged back to gaol and locked up again till they should pay sundry fees to the gaoler, the clerk of assize, etc.

Food: Many criminals are half starved: some come out almost famished, scarce able to move, and for weeks incapable of any labour.

Bedding: In many gaols, and in most bridewells, there is no allowance of bedding or straw for prisoners to sleep on. Some lie upon rags, others upon the bare floor.

Use of Irons: Loading prisoners with heavy irons which make their walking, and even lying down to sleep, difficult and painful, is another custom which I cannot but condemn. Even the women do not escape this severity.

The Insane: It some few gaols are confined idiots and lunatics. Where these are not kept separate, they distract and terrify other prisoners.

Knaresboro Prison: Earth floor: no fire; very offensive; a common sewer from the town running through it uncovered. I was informed that an officer, confined here some years since, took in with him a dog to defend him from vermin; but the dog was soon destroyed and the prisoner's face much disfigured.

Plymouth Gaol: Three rooms for felons, etc., and two rooms over them for debtors. One of the former, the clink, 15 feet by 8 feet 3 inches and about 6 feet high, with a wicket in the door 7 inches by 5 to admit light and air. To this, as I was informed, three men, who were confined near two months under sentence for transportation, came by turns for breath.

When a gentleman, particularly a magistrate, has come with an intention to visit the gaol, the keeper has pretended the utmost willingness to accompany him, but at the same time has artfully dropped a hint that he fears there may be some danger in it, as he is apprehensive that the fever has made its appearance among them. The visitor, alarmed, returns thanks for the kind caution, and instantly leaves the prison. I have always insisted on the necessity of a close inspection; and have generally found the prison very dirty, indeed, and out of order, but no fever.

John Howard has visited all Europe - not to survey the sumptuousness of palaces, or the stateliness of temples; or to make accurate measurements of the remains of ancient grandeur, to form a scale of the curiosity of modern art; not to collect medals or collate manuscripts - but to dive into the depths of dungeons and plunge to the infection of hospitals; to survey the mansions of sorrow and pain; to take the gauge and measure of misery, depression and contempt; to remember the forgotten, to attend to the neglected, to visit the forsaken, and compare and collate the miseries of all men in all countries. His plan is original; and it is full of genius as it is of humanity.


John Howard (1726-1790): Prison Reformer

This week Year 10 have been examining the great prison reformers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The following questions relate to arguably the most significant prison reformer of them all: John Howard. Here is a picture of his statue in his home town of Bedford, where he also served as High Sheriff from 1773.

Why did you dedicate your life to making prisons better? (Abbie, William, Moyrom)

Howard devoted his life to reforming prisons because he believed that every member of society was capable of leading a good and useful life – even those who had fallen into crime. He believed that if prisons were humane and well-run there would be less crime in the long-run. These ideas were backed up by his strong Christian faith, which taught him that no individual was ever past redemption.

Why do you believe that prisoners should be treated well and equally? (Michael)

As well as his strong Christian views, Howard was motivated to care for prisoners for the reason that one of his greatest heroes had spent much of his life in prison. This was the seventeenth century poet, John Bunyan, who also came from Bedford. His example made Howard realise that many people incarcerated in prison were capable of doing great things if only they were given the chance.

Why did the conditions in the prisons of Bedfordshire affect you so much and make you want to change them? (Joe)

What most disgusted Howard about prisons in Bedfordshire was the fact that many innocent people, who had been acquitted (found ‘not guilty’), were forced to remain in gaol until they had paid their debts to the warden. In some ways he found this as bad as the filth, over-crowding and the mixing of male and female prisoners which was then common in prisons.

Why was it important to measure the size of cells and the weight of food? (Moyrom)

Before he could reform prisons, Howard needed to know the existing conditions precisely. His detailed catalogue of the dimensions of prison cells and the daily food intake of prisoners (published in his 1777 book, ‘The State of the Prisons’) showed that people kept in prisons were simply not given enough food or space to live. Even animals were granted more of life’s essentials than many prisoners in the mid-1700s.

Why did you want to make prisons more spacious when they took up so much land already? (Anguma)

Actually most prisons took up very little land. They were not separate buildings, as they are today, but simply rooms within buildings such as fortresses, army barracks and, on occasion, private houses. Howard believed that prisons could only improve if they were specially built and carefully administered.

Did you have any brothers or sisters? (Anne-Marie)

Howard had a sister, but not very much is known about her life. This is partly because Howard was a very private man, and had almost no friends or contact with his family. He married late in life and had one son, Jack. This boy’s upbringing was extremely strange – Howard disciplined him extremely harshly in order to make him ‘good’. Howard said that Jack was so obedient that he would put his hand in the fire if he asked him to. Jack Howard grew up to be a madman, and died in a lunatic asylum.


History of John Howard

There are many organizations around the world which use the name John Howard. Most of them are associated with correctional reform and/or services to help offenders make positive changes in their lives. Although the organizations outside of Canada are not formally aligned, they share a common purpose and philosophy which reflects the life and work of the man John Howard.

In Ontario, The John Howard Society traces its roots back to religious classes taught in Toronto’s Don Jail in the late 1800s. In a more formal way, the organization was founded in 1929 by Brigadier General Draper, then the Chief of Police in Toronto. Draper recognized the futility in much of the work being done by police, trying to solve crimes and apprehend offenders, when prisoners who were being released from jail were thrust into circumstances of unemployment, isolation and poverty – circumstances that escalate rather than decrease the chances of re-offending.


Biography of John Howard

A realist, John Howard derived satisfaction from the modest improvements he was able to achieve and he appreciated that change would come, but slowly.

Biography By Gordon Hay

John Howard must have been a strange and complex individual who could not have been everyone’s ‘cup of tea’. Born in 1726 and though not of the nobility, he aspired to a gentleman’s esteem. Having been left a comfortable fortune and all the family’s property he was generous and caring to the tenants on his estate at Cardington in the county of Bedford, England. Still, he was a difficult and lonely man who, despite a great reputation, was to some extent a personal failure. He failed as a parent to his only son and he lacked those qualities which would have enabled him to establish close personal relations of friendship. Despite his expectation of esteem he opposed the collection of funds during his lifetime for the construction of a monument in his honour.

Though deeply humanitarian he was opinionated and self-righteous. His refusal to compromise with the one other member of an advisory committee named by the government was partly responsible for the failure of the government in England to construct an improved prison facility. Non-conformist, devout and narrow-minded in adherence to his own interpretations of Christian doctrine, he could nonetheless be tolerant and catholic to those who held different theological views. As long as they were involved in good works to combat human suffering and wickedness, they were accepted. Even so, an unwillingness to share his particular cause may explain why his reforming zeal never became a movement.

There can be no question that John Howard merits the accolade of being the father of prison reform. However, it is difficult to understand how he came to make this cause his life’s work. At age 50 he was unknown, at age 60 he was an international hero. There is little in his early life to explain it. It is true that he personally experienced prison. At the age of 40, curious to see the effects of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, he set out for Spain regardless of the fact that England and France were engaged in the Seven Years War. The ship in which Howard took passage was captured by the French and he was imprisoned. It would be two months before an exchange of prisoners obtained his release. Despite this experience, the more critical event for John Howard would seem to have been his appointment as High Sheriff of Bedfordshire in 1773. It was a political sinecure without qualifications and it came as a surprise when Howard took the responsibilities of the appointment seriously and embarked on his inspection of prisons. For the next seventeen years he was committed to the task – travelling thousands of miles by horse and carriage not only throughout Great Britain but including seven trips to the continent, even to Moscow and Constantinople. It was in the Crimea that he died in 1790, having contracted typhus in visiting Russian military hospitals. His grave is there at Kherson. He had given his personal fortune, his health and his safety to the cause of prison reform. In 1781, Edmund Burke, in paying tribute said, “He dived into the depth of dungeons, plunged into the infection of hospitals, surveyed the mansions of sorrow and pain, took the gauge and dimensions of misery, depression and contempt, remembered the forgotten, attended the neglected, visited the forsaken, and compared and collated the distressed of men in all countries.”

A realist, John Howard derived satisfaction from the modest improvements he was able to achieve and he appreciated that change would come, but slowly.

Let us briefly recall the social and moral context of the time. Reynolds, Galnsborough and Hogarth were active in London, as were Handel and Dr. Johnson. The economic scene was still dominated by agriculture and commerce although the first signs of an industrial revolution were appearing. It was an age of aristocracy pre-dating both the American and French Revolutions. The majority of people unfortunate enough not to belong to the aristocracy, frequently led lives of degradation and grinding poverty. It was a side of life that Hogarth depicted in his paintings. The first stirrings of Christian social conscience to alleviate the lot of the poor and down-trodden were being espoused by John Wesley. Execution was the prevalent means of dealing with breach of the law. In Mediterranean countries there were galley slaves, and the use of torture to obtain confessions of guilt was not confined to the inquisition in Spain. Transportation of criminals, first to America and later to Australia, was being practised in England. Prisons were ‘holding tanks’ where the majority of persons were held, either for debt or to await trial. Dens of iniquity, prisons were damp, dark and evil. Airless and unsanitary, they bred contagion and disease. Typhus and small pox were rampant. There was little or no government funding. Prisons were operated for financial gain – an opportunity for extortion which most gaolers exploited to the full. Prisoners paid for the privilege of walking unchained. Even if declared not guilty by the court, a prisoner would not be released until the fee for food and lodging had been paid. It was one of Howard’s recommendations that ‘gaolers’ be made salaried officials paid by the county. This suggests a policy whereby the operation of prisons should be a charge on the public purse and not a charge on the imprisoned – a policy without public support in Howard’s day. Not surprisingly, those who suffered imprisonment came chiefly from the poor and labouring class. Once imprisoned, one was fortunate to escape.

John Howard’s achievement derives not so much from personal courage and prison visitation, important as these were. On one occasion, because of the reputation he had with the imprisoned, he was able single-handedly to intervene and quell a riot in the Savoy military prison in London. Rather, his reputation rests on the meticulous recording and reporting of what he saw, in order that the general public might be made aware. His book, The State of Prisons in England and Wales, had three editions in his lifetime. With each new edition there was an appendix with the updated statistics of his findings. That he provided this information honestly, in factual and simple terms, refraining from all embellishment and exaggeration, gave credence to his work. He was not perceived as some “raving crackpot” and those in authority held him in esteem, respected his opinion and attended to his arguments. Only in France did his honest criticism get him into trouble with authority. There, he was declared ‘persona non grata’.

A realist, John Howard derived satisfaction from the modest improvements he was able to achieve and he appreciated that change would come, but slowly. He was the first to address a social problem by means of detailed analysis and he had all the problems of the pioneer. Though, in the main, his recommendations were simple and effective, they were not generally adopted until the latter part of the 19th century. In the early 1800’s when Elizabeth Fry visited Newgate, conditions were no better than those John Howard described fifty years before. A major problem was the gap between legislation and implementation. Having parliament pass a reform bill was one thing, having parliament provide the money for inspection to enforce legislation was quite another. Even when genuine improvement in prison conditions did take place, it is difficult to know whether the motive was concern for the prisoners or concern to reduce the potential spread of disease to those outside the prison.

What were the reforms John Howard advocated? Clean, healthy accommodation with the provision of adequate clothing and linen segregation of prisoners according to sex, age and nature of offence proper health care: these were his priorities. There should be a Chaplain service because he was of his age in believing that spiritual starvation was a major obstacle to reformation of character. Finally, he was a firm believer in the work ethic and the need for prisoners to be provided with work in order that the sin of idleness could be combatted.

When compared with the prisons which John Howard visited the Canadian prison of today is a much improved institution. Nevertheless, the problems of idleness, meaningful employment, proper health care and adequate segregation have never been fully resolved. Since many of the changes desired by John Howard have been achieved why is it that the suffering from incarceration and the need for rehabilitation are still important? Howard’s ideal prison is comparable to a hygienic and well-run zoo and it illustrates the limitations of his thinking. Only physical suffering aroused his sympathy. His age lacked the knowledge to appreciate the psychological damage of incarceration. More concerned with people than with ideas, at no time did he attempt to deal with the cause of crime. Although opposed to torture, he did not condemn the death penalty and he did not foresee today’s use of imprisonment for long-term sentences.

And yet he recognized what is surely the greatest obstacle to improvement, public attitude. In his book The State of the Prisons he says, “Those gentlemen who, when they are told of the misery which our prisoners suffer, content themselves with saying ‘let them take care to keep out…’, forget the vicissitudes of human affairs the unexpected changes to which men are liable and that those whose circumstances are affluent, may in time be reduced to indigence, and become debtors and prisoners.”


John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk

"John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (c.1425 – 22 August 1485) was an English nobleman and soldier, a descendant of King John, and the first Howard Duke of Norfolk. He was a close friend and loyal supporter of King Richard III, with whom he was slain at the Battle of Bosworth."

[S2] #623 The Visitation of Norfolk in the Year 1563 (1878-1895), Harvey, William, (2 volumes. Norwich: [s.n.], 1878-1895), FHL book 942.61 D23ha FHL microfilm 990,432 items., vol. 1 p. 15.

[S6] G.E. Cokayne with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959 reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 253, volume II, page 154. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.

[S16] #894 Cahiers de Saint-Louis (1976), Louis IX, Roi de France, (Angers: J. Saillot, 1976), FHL book 944 D22ds., vol. 2 p. 122.

[S20] Magna Carta Ancestry: A study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Richardson, Douglas, (Kimball G. Everingham, editor. 2nd edition, 2011), vol. 2 p. 412.

[S25] #798 The Wallop Family and Their Ancestry, Watney, Vernon James, (4 volumes. Oxford: John Johnson, 1928), FHL book Q 929.242 W159w FHL microfilm 1696491 it., vol. 2 p. 446, vol. 3 p. 551, 844.

[S33] #242 [1883 edition] A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire (New edition, 1883, reprint 1962), Burke, Sir John Bernard, (New edition. 1883. Reprint, London: Harrison and Sons, 1962), FHL book 942 D22bug 1883., p. 284, 387.

[S47] #688 Collectanea topographica et genealogica (1834-1843), (8 volumes. London: J.B. Nichols, 1834-1843), FHL book 942 B2ct FHL microfilms 496,953 item 3 a., vol. 1 p. 300.

[S53] #3945 The Visitations of Yorkshire in the Years 1563 and 1564, Made by William Flower, Esquire, Norroy King of Arms (1881), Flower, William, (Publications of the Harleian Society: Visitations, volume 16. London: [Harleian Society], 1881), FHL book 942 B4h volume 16 FHL microfilm 162,050 ., vol. 16 p. 338.

[S59] #765 The Hundred of Launditch and Deanery of Brisley in the County of Norfolk: Evidences and Topographical Notes from Public Records, Heralds Visitations, Wills, Court Rolls (1877-1879), Carthew, George Alfred, (3 volumes. Norwich: [s.n.], 1877-79 (Norwich: Miller and Leavins)), FHL book 942.61 H2c FHL microfilm 990,425 item 1., vol. 2 pt. 2 p. 651.

[S76] #1008 Sussex Archaeological Collections: Illustrating History and Antiquities of the County (1848-), (Haywards Heath: Sussex Archaeological Society, 1848-), FHL book 942.25 B2ac., vol. 41 p. 82.

[S101] #11833 The Ancestry of Mary Isaac, C.1549-1613: Wife of Thomas Appleton of Little Waldingfield, Co. Suffolk . . . (1955), Davis, Walter Goodwin, (Portland, Maine: Anthoesen Press, 1955), FHL book 929.242 Is1d FHL microfilm 990,484 item ., p. 92.

[S124] #240 Collins's Peerage of England, Genealogical, Biographical, and Historical, Greatly Augmented, and Continued to the Present Time (1812), Brydges, Sir Egerton,, (9 volumes. London: [T. Bensley], 1812), FHL book 942 D22be., vol. 1 p. 57,62.

[S161] #651 The Parochial and Family History of the Deanery of Trigg Minor, in the County of Cornwall (1873-1879), Maclean, John, (3 volumes. London: Nichols & Son, 1873-1879), FHL book 942.37 K2ma FHL microfilm 90,276., vol. 1 p. 317.

[S162] #653 The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Herald's Visitations of 1531, 1564, & 1620 (1895), Vivian, J. L. (John Lambrick), (Exeter: For the author by H.S. Eland, [1895]), FHL book 942.35 D23v FHL microfilm 873,760., vol. 1 p. 106.

[S177] #929 The History and Antiquities of the County of Surrey: Compiled from the Best and Most Authentic Historians, Valuable Records, and Manuscripts in the Public Offices and Libraries, and in Private Hands.. (1804-1814), Manning, Owen, (Three volumes. London: J. Nichols, 1804-1814), FHL book Q 942.21 H2ma., vol. 2 p. 169.

[S260] #1784 The Visitation of Norfolk, Made and Taken by William Hervey, Anno 1563, Enlarged with Another Visitacion [Sic] Made by Clarenceux Cook: with Many Other Descents, and Also the Vissitation [Sic] Made by John Raven, Anno 1613 (1891), Rye, Walter, (The Publications of the Harleian Society: Visitations, volume 32. London: [Harleian Society], 1891), FHL book 942 B4h FHL microfilm 162,058., vol. 32 p. 162.

[S266] #379 [7th edition, 1992] Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, Who Came to America Before 1700 (7th edition, 1992), Weis, Frederick Lewis, (7th edition. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, c1992), FHL book 974 D2w 1992., p. 24 line 22:34.

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[S452] #21 The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (1910), Cokayne, George Edward (main author) and Vicary Gibbs (added author), (New edition. 13 volumes in 14. London: St. Catherine Press,1910-), vol. 1 p. 253, 256 fn. (d) vol. 2 p. 133, 133 fn. (c), 154.

[S721] #1517 Historical notices of the parishes of Swyncombe and Ewelme in the county of Oxford, Napler, Henry Alfred, (Oxford : J. Wright, 1858), 942.57 H2n Large Q book., pedigree facing p. 42.

[S1800] #771 The History of the Princes, the Lords Marcher and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fodog and the Ancient Lords of Arwystli, Cedewen and Meirionydd (1881-1887), Lloyd, Jacob Youde William, (6 volumes. London: T. Richards, 1881-1887), FHL book 942.9 D2L FHL microfilms 990,213-990,214., vol. 1 p. 389.

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[S2411] #11915 British Genealogy (filmed 1950), Evans, Alcwyn Caryni, (Books A to H. National Library of Wales MSS 12359-12360D. Manuscript filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), FHL microfilms 104,355 and 104,390 item 2., book 6 p. F10.

lst Duke of Norfolk of the Howard family, son & heir of Sir Robert Howard by Margaret, dau of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, & cousin & ultimately coheiress of John Mowbray, 4th duke of Norfolk (d. 1475). He entered the service of his kinsman John Mowbray, 3rd duke of Norfolk. He was of service to the Yorkist cause, for on the accession of Edward IV in 1461 he was knighted, appointed constable of Colchester Castle, sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, and one of the king's carvers, and was known to have 'great fellowship' with the king. In 1462 he was appointed constable of Norwich Castle, and received grants of several manors forfeited by the Earl of Wiltshire and others. He was joined in a commission with Lords Fauconberg and Clinton to keep the seas and they made a descent on Brittany, and took Croquet and the Isle of Rhé. Towards the end of the year he served under Norfolk against the Lancastrians in the north, and was sent by the duke from Newcastle to help the Earl of Warwick at Warkworth, and in the spring of 1464 was with Norfolk in Wales when the duke was securing the country for the king. Howard returned home on 8 June (1464), and bought the reversion of the constableship of Bamborough Castle. On 3 Nov. 1465 his wife Catharine(dau of Wm., Lord Moleyns,) died. He married his 2nd wife, Margaret, dau of Sir John Chedworth, and in Apr was elected knight of the shire for Suffolk. He was employed in June 1468 in attending the king's sis Eliz to Flanders on her marriage with Charles, duke of Burgundy . When Henry VI was restored he created Howard a baron by a writ of summons dated 15 Oct. 1470, making him Baron de Howard. Nevertheless, he appears to have remained faithful to the Yorkist cause. He commanded a fleet sent to oppose the Lancastrians & on Edward's landing in Mar,1471 proclaimed him king in Suffolk. Was at the battles of Barnet & Tewkesbury. In June he was appointed deputy-governor of Calais, and after having sworn to maintain the succession of the Prince of Wales, crossed over on 3 June, and was engaged in negotiations with France. When Edward invaded France in July 1475 he was accompanied by Howard, who was one of the king's most trusted councillors during the expedition he was one of the commissioners who made the truce at Amiens, received a pension from Louis XI, and met Philip de Commines to arrange the conference between the two kings at Picquigny. He remained in France as a hostage for a short time after Edward left, and on his return to England received from the king as a reward for his fidelity and prudence grants of several manors in Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. He also was sent to Scotland in command of a fleet. At the funeral of Edward in April 1483, Howard, who is styled the king's bannerer, bore the late king's banner. Next he attached himself to Richard of Gloucester, and became privy to all his plans and doings. He was appointed high steward of the duchy of Lancaster on 13 May, and a privy councillor, and on 28 June was created Duke of Norfolk and earl marshal with remainder to the heirs male of his body, the patent thus reviving the dignities held by the Mowbrays and Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I, from whom he was descended on the mother's side through females. He was concerned in persuading the widowed queen [Elizabeth Woodville] to deliver up her younger son the Duke of York, that he might be lodged with his brother in the Tower. At the coronation of Richard III on 6 July he acted as high steward, bore the crown, and as marshal rode into Westminster Hall after the ceremony. He was appointed admiral of England, Ireland, and Aquitaine. Was with Richard on his visit to the north on 12 Sept. 1484 when he was nominated chief of the commissioners to treat with the ambassadors of James III of Scotland. For the sake of his oath and his honour he would not desert the king. At Bosworth he commanded the vanguard, which was largely composed of archers, and he was slain in the battle on 22 Aug. He was buried in the conventual church of Thetford. He was attainted by act of the first parliament of Henry VII. By his first wife, Catharine, he had Thomas, earl of Surrey and second duke of Norfolk, and four daughters: Anne, married to Sir Edward Gorges of Wraxall, Somerset Isabel, married to Sir Robert Mortimer of Essex Jane, married to John Timperley and Margaret, married to Sir John Wyndham of Crownthorpe and Felbrigg, Norfolk, ancestor of the Wyndhams, earls of Egremont. His second wife, who bore him one daughter, Catharine, married to John Bourchier, second lord Berners, survived him, married John Norreys, and died in 1494. — Rev. William Hunt.

After the dissolution of Thetford Priory, the Howard tombs were moved to the Church of St Michael the Archangel,


The book is separated into two parts. The first uses oral histories to narrate a loose history, an impression of the time period as a whole for queer men. He frankly discusses the limits of this type of history, the types of narratives received when a historian asks for queer interviewees — you miss out on the huge pool of men who “liked that,” but weren’t “like that.” Still, even though it’s limited, it’s useful. The second part of the book, larger in size, deals with more traditional historica The book is separated into two parts. The first uses oral histories to narrate a loose history, an impression of the time period as a whole for queer men. He frankly discusses the limits of this type of history, the types of narratives received when a historian asks for queer interviewees — you miss out on the huge pool of men who “liked that,” but weren’t “like that.” Still, even though it’s limited, it’s useful. The second part of the book, larger in size, deals with more traditional historical methods. It’s more chronological, and covers such history-ish things as laws, activist organizing, public backlash, the civil rights movement, and fictional representations (not in that order).

I was pleased by Howard’s treatment of race and religion throughout the book. He rightly notes that the book would be devastatingly incomplete without discussing race and the intersection of race with sexuality, and he follows through on discussing that in pretty much every section, although he was limited in some areas by lack of available sources. Fun and significant fact — according to Howard (although not in his words), things were relatively chill for queer men in Mississippi in the 50s, but racism was huge. After the civil rights movement got started there was backlash, and queer folks got caught up in it, in large part because the anti-civil rights people tried to accuse civil rights leaders of crazy pervy stuff in general to discredit them. Also just because the dominant classes were doubling down on their definitions of propriety in general, but ALSO because queers and queer activism were legitimately linked to the Civil Rights Movement proper. The 60s and 70s were the hardest time for queer folks, not the 50s.

Men Like That isn’t a perfect book. The main issue is too much editorializing, without clearly linking his interpretation to his evidence. Interpretation, in a historian’s parlance simply meaning “chitchat and conclusions based on evidence,” is the whole point of history writing. I just prefer to have very explicit linkages between the discussion and the evidence being discussed, because it minimizes confusion. However, this is a very common thing in history books, and it didn’t hamper my enjoyment. The work is copiously endnoted, and being a nerd working on a project, I spent a lot of quality time with those endnotes. So, I can confidently say if you want more information about any of his topics, you can easily figure out his sources and continue on your own. Another minor criticism is that he quotes Novid Parsi in glowing terms on several occasions, without mentioning that they were partners at the time. He mentions it in the acknowledgements, but not when actually using Parsi’s work.


Beginnings

John Winston Howard was born in Earlwood in Sydney on 26 July 1939. He grew up in this south-western industrial suburb, attending the local government primary school and later Canterbury Boys&rsquo High School.

His father, a garage proprietor, influenced his emerging political and economic views, impressing on him the importance of small business as an employment provider.

After studying law at the University of Sydney, Howard graduated in 1961, and then practised as a solicitor for the next 12 years. A committed Liberal Party member, he was soon deeply involved in its organisation. He joined the party&rsquos New South Wales State Executive in 1963, and served as State Vice-President of the party from 1972 to 1974.

In 1971 Howard married Janette Parker, and they had a daughter and two sons.


Christmas Ceramics

With their cute, animated faces and atomic shapes, Holt-Howard’s holiday ceramics were a hit with young Midcentury American consumers who didn’t want their homes to mirror those of their parents. Bob Howard—a longtime artist—did many of the designs and sketches, along with a few other artists. While not a popular concept today, Holt-Howard joined other companies of the era in lowering manufacturing costs by taking production overseas. The main showroom was in New York, eventually moving to Stamford, Connecticut.

The first few years at Holt-Howard focused on Christmas ceramics. Among the more popular holiday items:

  • The Winking Santa and Merry Whiskers beverage sets, which included pitchers and mugs and usually changed designs each year
  • Starry-Eyed Santa party ware, which included pitchers, mugs, salt and pepper shakers, candy dishes and ashtrays (a refreshing combo)
  • Christmas-motif cookie jars
  • Various candle holders and candelabras
  • Lady head vases
  • Planters
  • Various serve and giftware.

With Cary Grant in The Philadelphia Story

The good-looking and personable young Howard soon became a contract player for Paramount, working in a dozen pictures before getting his first memorable role as Ronald Colman's younger brother in Lost Horizon. Ώ] He soon took over for Colman in the popular Bulldog Drummond series of films, starring in seven of the features (1937–39), and maintaining the film version of the detective as far more sophisticated than the original print character. Howard's next noteworthy assignment was as Katharine Hepburn's fiancée in The Philadelphia Story (1940), competing for her attention with both Cary Grant and James Stewart.

Military service [ edit | edit source ]

He served in the Navy during World War II, eventually as Executive Officer aboard a minesweeper USS YMS-24 where he participated in landing operations at Sicily, Salerno, Anzio, and deception operations against Sardinia and Southern France. ΐ] When his vessel struck a mine off the French coast in August, 1944, killing the captain and severely damaging the ship, Howard took over command and fought valiantly to save his ship and crew, even jumping into the sea to save several wounded sailors. For his gallantry he was awarded both the US Navy Cross and the French Croix de Guerre.

Return to acting [ edit | edit source ]

Upon his return to Hollywood, Howard was given the lead in lesser projects, but limited to supporting roles in feature pictures. Even his solid performance as Laraine Day's husband in The High and the Mighty (1954) did not generate any opportunities to break the pattern.

Howard wasn't familiar or comfortable with the new system of agents, contrary to his acting upbringing of being owned by Paramount studios. A shy and modest man, Howard didn't have the assertiveness expected in an audition, and wasn't comfortable "selling himself" to a film. Between his shyness and not having an assertive agent, Howard's big screen acting career tapered out but he found a niche in television.

Howard made his Broadway debut in Hazel Flagg in 1953, where he met his wife, ballerina/actress Eva Ralf.

Howard then played the lead in two American television series Dr. Hudson's Secret Journal and later Adventures of the Sea Hawk in 1957.

He found a great friendship with Fred MacMurray, star of My Three Sons, and was a regular guest star on the show, playing Fred MacMurray's boss. He became one of the first screen actors to commit to working in the new field of television and continued to make occasional film appearances until the mid-1970s. Early in 1961, he guest starred as Captain Chilcoath in the episode "Rebellion at Blazing Rock" of the 17-week NBC series, The Americans, a dramatization of how the American Civil War divided many families.

Career change to education [ edit | edit source ]

In time, Howard moved into academia. He taught English at Highland Hall Waldorf School for more than twenty years and helped to start the high school program at the institution.


Griffin, John Howard (1920&ndash1980)

John Howard Griffin, writer, the second son of four children of John Walter and Lena May (Young) Griffin, was born in Dallas, Texas, on June 16, 1920. His mother was a classically trained pianist who taught for thirty years in the Fort Worth area, and his father was a fine Irish tenor and a radio personality as a younger man. His family influenced Griffin's lifelong love for both music and literature. He attended R. L. Paschal High School in Fort Worth until he left the United States at fifteen in search of a classical education. He entered the Lycée Descartes in Tours, France, completed studies in French and literature at the University of Poitiers, and studied medicine at the École de Médecine. He interned under the direction of Dr. Pierre Fromenty at the Asylum of Tours, conducting experiments in the use of music in therapy for the criminally insane. He received certificates of musical study from the Conservatoire de Fontainebleau, under the tutelage of such renowned teachers as Nadia Boulanger, Robert Casadesus, and Jean Batalla. As a musicologist specializing in medieval music, especially Gregorian chant, Griffin received certificates of study from the Benedictines at the Abbey of Solemnes in France.

Beginning at age nineteen, he worked as a medic in the French Resistance army, evacuating Austrian Jews to the port of St. Nazaire and to safety from the Nazis. He served thirty-nine months in the United States Army Air Corps in the South Seas. He was decorated for bravery and was disabled in the fighting during World War II. He lost his sight from 1946 until 1957. During his twelve years of blindness he wrote five novels (three unpublished) and began a journal in 1950 that had reached twenty volumes at the time of his death.

Griffin's books include The Devil Rides Outside (1952) Nuni (1956) Land of the High Sky (1959), the story of the Llano Estacado region and his only book on Texas The Church and the Black Man (1969) and A Time to be Human (1977). He published photography in Jacques Maritain: Homage in Words and Pictures (1974) and Twelve Photographic Portraits (1973) and wrote several books on Thomas Merton: A Hidden Wholeness (1970), The Hermitage Journals (1981), and Follow the Ecstasy: Thomas Merton, the Hermitage Years, 1965–1968 (1983). Griffin also wrote syndicated columns for the International News Service and King Features from 1957 until 1960.

He is best remembered for Black Like Me (1961), still in print in 1990 and translated into thirteen languages. For this book Griffin assumed the identity of an itinerant black man by chemically altering his skin color and shaving his head, and visited several racially segregated states during a six-week period of 1959. He initially recounted his adventure in a series of installments printed in the magazine Sepia during 1960 a year later his book version became a best seller. After becoming the target of local protests against Black Like Me, Griffin moved with his family to Mexico, where he remained for about nine months before moving to Fort Worth.