When did Frankfurt am Main adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

When did Frankfurt am Main adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

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The Gregorian Calendar was adopted in Habsburg lands in 1583. As Frankfurt am Main was a Free City within the Holy Roman Empire, it fell under direct control of the [Habsburg] Emperor. However, if I recall correctly, the majority of city inhabitants were actually Protestant, and thus less likely to adopt the new, Catholic calendar.

Taking this into account, in what year was the Gregorian Calendar adopted in Frankfurt a/M?

Frankfurt adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1700.

When Frankfurt adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1700, the new date of the Frankfurt fair conflicted with the date of the Leipzig fair.

- Carlbach, Elisheva. Palaces of Time. Harvard University Press, 2011.

This is part of a general wave of adoption by protestant Germany in the same year. The calendar had been made more palpable to the Lutheran princes because this time it was a slightly modified form, as proposed by Erhard Weigel.

In 1700, the protestants of the empire generally abandoned the old calendar and adopted a new one, framed by a celebrated mathematician named Weigel, which differed only from the Gregorian as to the mode of fixing Easter and the Movable feasts.

- Nicolas, Nicholas Harris. The Chronology of History: Containing Tables, Calculations & Statements Indispensable for Ascertaining the Dates of Historical Events and of Public and Private Documents from the Earliest Periods to the Present Times. Longman, Brown, Green and Longman's and John. Taylor, 1838.

Scandinavia, Switzerland and the Low Countries adopted the Gregorian calendar at the same time.

Frankfurt is located in what was originally a swampy portion of the Main valley, a lowland criss-crossed by channels of the river. The oldest parts are therefore to be found on the higher portions of the valley, through which passed the Roman road from Mainz (Roman Moguntiacum) to Heddernheim (Roman Nida). The Odenwald and Spessart ranges surrounded the area, lending a defensive advantage, and placenames show that the lowlands on both sides of the river were originally wooded.

The oldest part of the Altstadt, the old city center, is the Cathedral Hill (Domhügel), upon an island created by arms of the Main. Only from the West could it be reached by foot without getting wet this, together with its location at a ford, gave it significant military and economic advantages.

Stray archeological finds on the Domhügel go back to the Paleolithic, but the first proven settlement and land development date to the Roman era. It is assumed that the Romans settled on the hill in the last quarter of the 1st century CE amongst other things, a Roman bath has been found, which may have belonged to a larger complex, possibly a fortress. Apparently the military occupation was abandoned during the 2nd century and replaced by a villa. Several farm buildings have also been excavated. A similar building complex was discovered at the modern Günthersburgpark in the Frankfurt-Bornheim portion of the city.

With the retreat of the Roman border to the west bank of the Rhine in 259/260, the Roman history of Frankfurt came to an end.

Early Middle Ages Edit

The name Frankfurt first appears in writing in the year 793, but it seems to have already been a considerable city. In 794 a letter from the Emperor to the bishop of Toledo contained "in loco celebri, qui dicitur Franconofurd", which reads "that famous place, which is called Frankfurt."

It seems Cathedral Hill was already permanently settled in Merovingian times (possibly first by Romans). In 1992 excavations at the cathedral found the rich grave of a girl, that has been dated to the late Merovingian period of the 7th century.

Charlemagne built himself a royal court at "Franconovurd", the "ford of the Franks", and in the summer of 794 held a church council there, convened by the grace of God, authority of the pope, and command of Charlemagne (canon 1), and attended by the bishops of the Frankish kingdom, Italy and the province of Aquitania, and even by ecclesiastics from England. The council was summoned primarily for the condemnation of Adoptionism. According to the testimony of contemporaries two papal legates were present, Theophylact and Stephen, representing Pope Adrian I. After an allocution by Charlemagne, the bishops drew up two memorials against the Adoptionists, one containing arguments from patristic writings the other arguments from Scripture. The first was the Libellus sacrosyllabus, written by Paulinus, Patriarch of Aquileia, in the name of the Italian bishops the second was the Epistola Synodica, addressed to the bishops of Spain by those of the Empire, Gaul and Aquitania. In the first of its fifty-six canons the council condemned Adoptionism, and in the second repudiated the Second Council of Nicaea of 787, which, according to the faulty Latin translation of its Acts (see Caroline Books), seemed to decree that the same kind of worship should be paid to images as to the Blessed Trinity, though the Greek text clearly distinguishes between latreia and proskynesis this constituted a condemnation of iconoclasm. The remaining fifty-four canons dealt with metropolitan jurisdiction, monastic discipline, superstition etc.

Louis the Pious, Charlemagne's son, selected Frankfurt as his seat, extended the palatinate, built a larger palace, and in 838 had the city encircled by defensive walls and ditches.

After the Treaty of Verdun (843), Frankfurt became to all intents and purposes the capital of East Francia and was named Principalis sedes regni orientalis (principal seat of the eastern realm). Kings and emperors frequently stayed in Frankfurt, and Imperial Diets and church councils were repeatedly held there. The establishment of religious monasteries and numerous endowments to the local church furthered the urban community. Also, as the Holy Roman Emperor had no permanent residence anymore, Frankfurt remained the center of imperial power and the principal city of Eastern Francia.

After the era of lesser importance under the Salian and Saxon emperors, a single event once again brought Frankfurt to the fore: it was in the local church in 1147 that Bernard of Clairvaux called, amongst others, the Hohenstaufen king Conrad III to the Second Crusade. Before leaving for Jerusalem, Conrad selected his ten-year-old son as heir, but the boy died before his father. Due to this, an election was held in Frankfurt five years later, and after the emperor Frederick Barbarossa was elected, Frankfurt became the customary place for the election of the German kings.

Free Imperial City of Frankfurt Edit

By 1180 the city had expanded greatly, and by 1250 had seen an increase in privileges in addition to economic growth. A free imperial city under the Hohenstaufen emperors, Frankfurt experienced strong growth and rising national importance. Responsibility for the maintenance of public order lay with the bailiffs and reeves however, the citizens selected their own mayors and officials, who were responsible for some judicial duties. These officials enjoyed the favor of the emperors, who had eliminated the reeves entirely by the end of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Soon, Frankfurt became a fully self-governing Imperial estate with seat and vote on the Rhineland bench of the College of towns of the Imperial Diet. On the Reichsmatrikel (Imperial tax-schedule) of 1521, Frankfurt's contribution to the defense of the Empire was assessed at 500 gulden, 140 foot soldiers and 20 horsemen, ranking fifth among the 85 free imperial cities, behind Nuremberg, Ulm, Strasburg and Lübeck. [1]

Starting from the 16th century, trade and the arts flowered in Frankfurt. Science and innovation progressed, and the invention of the printing press in nearby Mainz promoted education and knowledge. From the 15th to 17th centuries, the most important book fair in Germany was held in Frankfurt, a custom which would be revived in 1949.

In the early 17th century tensions between the guilds and the patricians, who dominated the city council, led to substantial unrest. The guilds asked for greater participation in urban and fiscal policies as well as for economic restrictions of the Jewish community's rights. In 1612, following the election of Emperor Matthias, the council rejected the Guild's request, to read out publicly the imperial privileges given to the city. This caused the so-called Fettmilch Rebellion, named after its leader, the baker Vinzenz Fettmilch. A part of the populace, mainly craftsmen, rose up against the city council. In 1614, the mob began a pogrom in the city's Jewish ghetto, and the emperor had to ask Mainz and Hessen-Darmstadt to restore order.

In the Thirty Years' War, Frankfurt was able to maintain its neutrality the city council had avoided siding with one opponent or another after its negative experiences in the Schmalkaldic War. This issue became critical between 1631 and 1635, when the Swedish regent Gustav Adolf came to Frankfurt demanding accommodation and provisions for himself and his troops. But the city mastered these adversities more easily than what was to follow the war: the plague ravaged the city, as it would most of Europe at this time. In the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, Frankfurt was confirmed as an Imperial Free City, and soon reached new heights of prosperity. The Palais Barckhaus at Zeil in Frankfurt even served as residence of Emperor Charles VII until 1744. [ citation needed ]

During the French Revolutionary War, General Custine occupied Frankfurt in October 1792. On December 2 of the same year, the city was retaken.

In January 1806, General Augereau occupied the city with 9,000 men and extorted 4 million francs from it. Frankfurt's status as a free city ended when it was granted to Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg in the same year. In 1810 Dalberg's territories were reorganized into the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt.

During this time, the city experienced serious changes in the structure and construction of the town. Centuries-old defensive walls were dismantled, replaced by garden plots. It was felt that one no longer need fear cannon fire, even without walls. On July 1, 1808, Goethe's mother wrote to her son Wolfgang: "Die alten Wälle sind abgetragen, die alten Tore eingerissen, um die ganze Stadt ein Park." (The old barriers are levelled, the old gates torn down, around the whole city a park.)

On November 2, 1813, the allies drew together in Frankfurt, to re-establish its old rights and set up a central administrative council under Baron vom Stein. The Congress of Vienna clarified that Frankfurt was a Free City of the German federation, and in 1816 it became the seat of the Bundestag. This government seat occupied the Palais Thurn und Taxis. When Goethe visited his native city for the last time in 1815, he encouraged the councilmen with the words: "A free spirit befits a free city…..It befits Frankfurt to shine in all directions and to be active in all directions."

The city took good heed of this advice. When in 1831 Arthur Schopenhauer, a lecturer at the time, moved from Berlin to Frankfurt, he justified it with the lines: "Healthy climate, beautiful surroundings, the amenities of large cities, the Natural History Museum, better theater, opera, and concerts, more Englishman, better coffee houses, no bad water… and a better dentist."

In 1833 a revolutionary movement attempted to topple the Diet of the royalist German Confederation, which sat at Frankfurt, and was quickly put down. [2]

The Revolutions of 1848 and their aftermath Edit

The Revolutions of 1848, also known as the March Revolution, forced Klemens von Metternich, the reactionary Austrian head of state, to step down. This was celebrated wildly in Frankfurt. On 30 March 1848 one could see black, red, and gold flags everywhere, and the populace was admonished not to shoot into the air.

On 18 May 1848, the National Assembly held its first meeting in the Frankfurter Paulskirche. The last meeting was held there a year later, on 31 May 1849. Frankfurt was at this point the center of all political life in Germany. The party transformation and the excitement were the most violent there riots, particularly among those living in the Sachsenhausen quarter, had to be suppressed with force of arms on 7–8 July 1848 as well as on 18 September.

The next fifteen years saw new industrial laws focusing on complete freedom of trade, and political Emancipation of the Jews, initiated ten years before its final realization in 1864.

Starting in August 1863, a political gathering focused on German federal reform met in Frankfurt, including the national congress and the opposing reform congress. The Kingdom of Prussia did not show up, however, and the reform failed, leading to the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. Frankfurt was annexed by Prussia as a result of the war, and the city was made part of the province of Hesse-Nassau.

The spire of the cathedral tower marks the geographical center of the city at exactly 50° 6' 42.5" North and 8° 41' 9.4" East.

Early Nazi period Edit

In 1933 the Jewish mayor (Oberbürgermeister) Ludwig Landmann was replaced by NSDAP member Friedrich Krebs. This led to the firing of all Jewish officials in the city administration and from city organizations. A meeting of Frankfurt traders, who wanted to discuss the boycott of Jewish businesses, was broken up and the participants arrested and intimidated. Although the Nazis had originally mocked the city as the Jerusalem am Main because of its high Jewish population, the city adopted a propagandistic nickname, the Stadt des deutschen Handwerks or the city of German craft.

Kristallnacht Edit

Most of the synagogues in Frankfurt were destroyed by the Nazis on Kristallnacht in late 1938, deportation of the Jewish residents to their deaths in the Nazi concentration camps quickening in pace after the event. Their property and valuables were stolen by the Gestapo before deportation, and most were subjected to extreme violence and sadism during transport to the train stations for the cattle wagons which carried them east. Most later deportees (after the war began in 1939) ended up in new ghettoes established by the Nazis such as the Warsaw Ghetto and the Lodz ghetto, before their final transportation and murder in camps such as Sobibor, Belzec and Treblinka.

World War II Edit

Large parts of the city center were destroyed by in the bombings of the second World War. On March 22, 1944, a British attack destroyed the entire Old City, killing 1001 people. The East Port - an important shipping center for bulk goods, with its own rail connection - was also largely destroyed.

Frankfurt was first reached by the Allied ground advance into Germany during late March 1945. The US 5th Infantry Division seized the Rhine-Main airport on 26 March 1945 and crossed assault forces over the river into the city on the following day. The tanks of the supporting US 6th Armored Division at the Main River bridgehead came under concentrated fire from dug-in heavy flak guns at Frankfurt. The urban battle consisted of slow clearing operations on a block-by-block basis until 29 March 1945, when Frankfurt was declared as secured, although some sporadic fighting continued until 4 April 1945. [3]

Post-war period Edit

The Military Governor for the United States Zone (1945–1949) and the United States High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) (1949–1952) had their headquarters in the IG Farben Building, intentionally left undamaged by the Allies' wartime bombardment [ citation needed ] . The heavily destroyed city decided in the spirit of the time to plan a major reconstruction of the historical city center, retaining the old road system. The formerly independent city republic joined the state of Hesse in 1946. As the state capital was already at the smaller city of Wiesbaden and the American armed forces had used Frankfurt as their European headquarters, the city seemed most promising candidate for the West German federal capital. The American forces even agreed to withdraw from Frankfurt to make it suitable, as the British forces already had withdrawn from Bonn. Much to the disappointment of many in Frankfurt, however, the vote narrowly favored Bonn twice. Despite this, the mayor looked towards the future, seeing that with the division of Germany and relative isolation of Berlin, Frankfurt could take over positions in trade and commerce previously filled by Berlin and Leipzig. Since Bonn never played an important role despite its status as capital, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Munich realigned themselves, passing from regional centers to international metropolises and effectively forming three West German cultural and financial capitals.

Since the turn of the 2nd century, the Frankfurt fair has been held every fall and had become the most important fair site in Europe. Frankfurt's countless publishing houses as well as its fur industry profited from the elimination of Leipzig by the division of Germany into East and West. After the war, the West German book fair was held in Frankfurt. Since German reunification, the Frankfurt Book Fair is held in the fall, and Leipzig's in the spring. The bi-annual Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung is a worldwide car fair that is also held in Frankfurt.

The Deutsche Bundesbank made Frankfurt its seat, and most major banks followed suit. This and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange have made the city the second most important commercial center in Europe, after London.

The date of the original organization of Frankfurt's Jewish community is uncertain. Probably no Jews were living in Frankfurt at the time of the first and second Crusades, as the city is not mentioned among the places where Jews were persecuted, although references occur to persecutions in the neighboring cities of Mainz and Worms.

A Jew of Frankfurt is mentioned in connection with the sale of a house at Cologne between 1175 and 1191. Eliezer ben Nathan, rabbi at Mainz toward the end of the twelfth century, says that there were not then ten adult Jews in Frankfurt. The first reliable information concerning Frankfurt Jews dates from 1241, on May 24 of which year 180 Hebrews were killed during a riot and many fled, this being the first Judenschlacht or slaughter of the Jews. As the affair was detrimental to the income of the emperor, he was incensed with the city for seven years. King Conrad IV did not forgive the citizens until May 6, 1246. The emperor distributed the income he derived from the Jews so liberally among the princes and his retainers that he had little left for himself yet the Jews remained under his protection. In 1286 King Rudolf pledged to Count Adolf of Nassau 20 marks yearly from the income derived from the Frankfurt Jews. When Adolf was made king under the title of "Adolf of Nassau", he pledged these 20 marks to the knight Gottfried of Merenberg (1292) and the latter again pledged 4 marks of this sum to the knight Heinrich of Sachsenhausen. King Adolf also gave 25 marks to Glottfried of Eppstein as a hereditary fief and from 1297 he gave 300 marks yearly of the Jews' tax to the Archbishop of Mainz, adding to this sum 500 pounds of hellers in 1299. As early as 1303 the archbishop pledged 100 marks of this amount, and thus the Jews of the city of Frankfurt became subject to the archbishop. The emperor, however, attempted to exact still more money from the Jews, and it was only thanks to the resistance of the city that King Adolf did not succeed in 1292 in extracting from them the sum required for his coronation.

The Jews were subject not only to the emperor and to the archbishop but also to the city in 1331 King Ludwig recommended his "beloved Kammerknechte" to the protection of the municipality. Under Ludwig the Frankfurt Jews were accused of a crime and cruelly persecuted, and many fled. The king then confiscated the houses and other property of the fugitives and sold them to the municipal council for 3,000 pounds of hellers. Those Jews that returned had their property restored to them and, as the Jews had been treated unjustly, the king promised not to punish them again but to be content with the verdict of the municipal council. The Jews were required, however, to pay to the king a new impost, the "goldene Opferpfennig."

In the 14th century Edit

During the Black Death (1349) the Jews of Frankfurt were again persecuted. At the beginning of these outbreaks the circumspect Emperor Charles IV, who feared for his income, pledged the Jews to the city for more than 15,000 pounds of hellers, stipulating that he would redeem them, which he never did. The Flagellants, on coming to Frankfurt, destroyed nearly the entire Jewish community, with the Jews in their distress setting fire to their own houses. Their property was confiscated by the council by way of indemnity. Jews returned to Frankfurt very gradually. In 1354 Charles IV renewed his pledge to the city three years later the Archbishop of Mainz again advanced his claims, but the Jews and the council came to an agreement with him in 1358. In 1367 the city was again in full possession of the income derived from the Jews, but this did not prevent the emperor from occasionally levying extraordinary taxes for example, Sigismund (1414) exacted a contribution from the Jews toward the expenses of the Council of Constance.

The Jews were under the jurisdiction of the municipal council. Beginning with 1488, privileges (Judenstüttigkeiten) were issued that had to be renewed every three years. The Jews lived originally in the vicinity of the cathedral, this part of the city being necessary for their commerce but Christians also lived there. Hence it was a hard blow to the former when they were forced, in 1462, to settle outside the old city ramparts and the moat. At first the city built their dwellings, but later they were required to erect their own houses, The Judengasse originally consisted merely of one row of houses when this became overcrowded, a part of the moat was filled in, and houses were built upon the new ground thus obtained. There were three gates in the street, one at each end and one in the center. The cemetery of the community, which was situated on the Fischerfeld and is still in existence, is mentioned for the first time in 1300, but a tombstone dated July, 1272, has been preserved. Among the communal buildings were the synagogue (called also the "Judenschule"), the "Judenbadstube", the "Juden-Tanzhaus" or "Spielhaus", and the hospital. The Jewish inhabitants were more numerous in the early years of the community than later on: in 1241 they numbered about 200 in 1357 there were 12 tax-paying families from 1357 to 1379, not more than 14 on the average from 1401 to 1450, an average of 12 while in 1473 there were 17 families.

From the 15th to the 17th century Edit

Toward the end of the Middle Ages the number of the Frankfurt Jews was considerably increased by emigrants from Nuremberg (1498) and Frankfurt replaces Nuremberg as the leading Jewish community in the empire. This is seen in the numerous requests made by other cities to the magistrates of Frankfurt for information concerning their method of procedure in cases affecting Jews. [4] Civil cases were decided by a commission of twelve, with the chief rabbi at its head. The reports of this commission from 1645 to 1808 are in the archives of the community. In 1509 the Jews were threatened with confiscation of their Hebrew books by Pfefferkorn, who arrived in the city with an imperial edict on April 10, 1510, they were obliged to surrender all their books, which were not restored to them until June 6, after they had sent a special embassy to the emperor. In 1525 the impending danger of expulsion was averted by the municipal council but the Jews were restricted in their commerce and were forbidden to build their houses higher than three stories. Although this measure crowded them more closely, there were 43 Jewish families in Frankfurt in 1543, and 454 in 1612. [5]

With their return to Frankfurt a new epoch in the history of the Jews of that city begins. They were still debarred from acquiring real estate, but they loaned money, even accepting manuscripts as pledges. The rate of interest, formerly as high as 24 percent, was now reduced to 8 percent. As the unredeemed pledges were sold, traffic in second-hand goods arose, which was further stimulated by the fact that the Jews were not permitted to sell new goods. They were also forbidden to deal in spices, provisions, weapons, cloth, and (from 1634 on) grain. But in spite of these interdictions, their commerce gradually increased. During the Thirty Years' War the Jews fared no worse than their neighbors. In 1694 there were 415 Jewish families of these, 109 persons were engaged as moneylenders and dealers in second-hand goods 106 dealt in dry goods, clothes, and trimmings 24 in spices and provisions 9 retailed wine and beer 3 were innkeepers and 2 had restaurants. Besides these there were the communal officials.

In the 18th century Edit

The importance and status of the community at the beginning of the eighteenth century are indicated by the gracious reception accorded to the deputation that offered presents to Joseph I on his visit to Heidelberg in 1702. On Jan. 14, 1711, a fire which broke out in the house of Rabbi Naphtali Cohen destroyed the synagogue together with nearly the whole Judengasse. The rabbi was accused of having caused the fire by cabalistic means and was forced to leave the city. The 8,000 homeless Jews found shelter either in the pest house or with compassionate Christians. The synagogue and the dwelling houses were speedily rebuilt, and the street was widened six feet. In 1715 the community issued an edict against luxury. From 1718 onward the "Residenten", or representatives of the community of Frankfurt at Vienna, were accorded official recognition. In 1721 part of the Judengasse was again destroyed by fire. About the same period, conflicts with the Shabbethaians (a messianic Jewish sect) caused excitement in the community. In consequence of the denunciation of a baptized Jew the edition of the Talmud published at Frankfurt and Amsterdam between the years 1714 and 1721 was confiscated and certain prayer books were likewise seized on account of the "Alenu" prayer. The books were restored, however, on Aug. 1, 1753, chiefly through the efforts of Moses Kann.

The middle of the century was marked by the dissensions between the Kann and Kulp parties. The Kulp party, to which many influential men belonged, endeavored to harmonize the ancient constitution of the community with new measures for the benefit of the people but their efforts were thwarted by the wealthy Kann family, whose influence was predominant both in the government of the community and among the people. In 1750 the two parties effected a compromise, which was, however, of but short duration. The community was further excited by Jonathan Eybeschütz's amulet controversy. In 1756 the Jews received permission to leave their street in urgent cases on Sundays and feast days for the purpose of fetching a physician or a barber or mailing a letter, but they were required to return by the shortest way. In 1766 the Cleve divorce controversy began to excite the rabbinate of Frankfurt also. At the coronation of Joseph II. the Frankfurt Jews were permitted for the first time to appear in public, when they swore allegiance to the emperor (May 28, 1764). The community of Frankfurt rendered great service in suppressing Eisenmenger's "Entdecktes Judenthum", confiscating all the copies in 1700. Eisenmenger sued the community for 30,000 gulden. Although he lost his case, proceedings were several times renewed with the aid of King Frederick I of Prussia, and only in 1773 was the community finally released from all claims brought by Eisenmenger's heirs.

In 1753 there were 204 houses, built on both sides of the Jews' street. On May 29, 1774, a fire destroyed 21 dwellings, and the homeless again found shelter in the houses of Christians. When their houses were rebuilt, the Jews endeavored to remain outside of the ghetto but were forced to return by a decree of Feb. 13, 1776. One hundred and forty houses on the Jews' street were destroyed by fire when the French bombarded the city in 1796.

The Cemetery Edit

The Jewish cemetery, as mentioned above, is situated on the old Fischerfeld. In 1349 the cemetery was enclosed within the city moat and walls, which were fortified with jetties. Beginning in 1424 the neighboring communities also buried their dead there but this privilege was withdrawn by the magistrate in 1505. When Frankfurt was besieged during the interregnum in 1552, a garrison with cannon was stationed in the cemetery, and an attempt was even made to force the Jews to sink the tombstones and to level the ground but against this they protested successfully (July 15, 1552). During the Fettmilch riots the whole community spent the night of September 1, 1614, in the cemetery, prepared for death, and thought themselves fortunate when they were permitted to leave the city through the Fischerfeld gate on the following afternoon. In 1640 a dispute in regard to passage through the cemetery was decided in favor of the Jews. The community occasionally paid damages to Christians who were injured by the oxen (bekorim, the first-born that may not be used in accordance with Exodus xiii. 3) that grazed within the cemetery walls. In 1694 a neighboring garden was bought for the purpose of enlarging the cemetery. During the great fire of 1711 the Jews sought refuge withall their possessions among the tombs of the fathers. The communal baking ovens, which before the fire were behind the synagogue, were transferred to a new site acquired in 1694. The only building preserved from the flames was the hospital for the poor, near the cemetery behind it, another hospital was built in 1715 to replace the one in the Judengasse that had been destroyed. A slaughterhouse for poultry and a fire station were erected between the ovens and the cemetery. The fire station existed down to 1882 the site of the ovens is now covered by the handsome building of the Sick Fund, and that of the Holzplatz and the garden by the Philanthropin schoolhouse. On the site of the two hospitals the Neue Gemeinde-Synagoge was built in 1882. The cemetery, covering more than 5 acres (20,000 m 2 ), was closed in 1828 its epitaphs have been published by Dr. M. Horovitz.

The end of the eighteenth century marks a new epoch for the Jews of Frankfurt. In 1796 they received permission to live among Christians. In 1811 the prince-primate granted them full civic equality. In 1809 they were already scattered throughout the city and had taken surnames. A reaction, however, came in 1816, when the city, on regaining its autonomy, completely excluded the Jews from the municipal government. In 1819 there were riots to the cry of "Hep-hep!", and the magistrate discussed the advisability of restricting the number of Jews to not more than 500 families and of assigning to them a special part of the city. These schemes, however, were not carried into effect. In 1853 the civic rights of the Jews were enlarged, and in 1864 all restrictions were removed. The synagogue that had been rebuilt after the fire of 1711 in the Judengasse was torn down in 1854, and a new synagogue was erected on the site (1855–60). The synagogue on the Börneplatz was consecrated in 1882. The Israelitische Religionsgesellschaft, an independent congregation founded in 1851 (incorporated 1900), built a synagogue in 1853 and enlarged it in 1874. In 1817 there were 4,309 Jews in Frankfurt in 1858, 5,730 in 1871, 10,009 in 1880, 13,856 in 1890, 17,479 and in 1900, 22,000 in a total population of 288,489.

Rabbis and scholars Edit

The following rabbis and scholars of Frankfurt are buried here:

    (cf. darshan), author of "Yalkut Shim'oni." [citation needed] , author of the collection "Aguddah." [citation needed]
  • R. Isaac ben Nathan, a victim of the first "Judenschlacht" (1241). [citation needed]
  • Anselm, 1288. [citation needed] (cf. Hanau), 1332. [citation needed] , martyr in 1349. [citation needed] (cf. Lampe), 1363. [citation needed] , 1374. [citation needed] , 1385 took part in the convention of rabbis at Mainz in 1381. [citation needed] of Speyer, 1394. [citation needed] , 1430–60. [citation needed]
  • Simon Cohen, a relative of Moses Minz. [citation needed] held office till 1505. [citation needed] took part in the convention of rabbis at, Worms in 1542. [citation needed] , author. [citation needed] , son of the preceding also an author. [citation needed] widely known as a preacher died in 1597. The Maharal of Prague, delivered the funeral oration. [citation needed] (cf. Aschaffenburg), author of a supercommentary to Rashi's Pentateuch commentary lived at Frankfurt until his death. [citation needed] , pupil of Akiba Frankfurt wrote a song, "Streit Zwischen Wasser und Wein," to the melody of "Dietrich von Bern", and many other works was a native of Frankfurt. [citation needed] . [citation needed] . [citation needed] (cf. Friedberg), during whose incumbency the most important event was the convention of rabbis held at Frankfurt in 1603. [citation needed] called to Frankfurt in 1606 went to Prague in 1622. He was the author of the kabalistic work "Shnei Luchoth ha-Brith." [citation needed] (cf. Hahn), author of a work dealing with the liturgy and with the chief phases of religious life officiated up to the time of his death in 1637. [citation needed] (cf.Hildesheim) elected in 1618. [citation needed] elected 1622 author of the cabalistic work "Sefer ha-Kavonot," which relates the events in connection with the Fettmilch riot and which was approved by Elhanan Helen, author of the "Megillat Winz." [citation needed] of Prague, grandson of the Maharal of Prague officiated in 1628. [citation needed] , son of Isaiah Horowitz elected in 1632. He was the author of "Vavei ha-'Ammudim," the introduction to his father's work. In 1643 he went, like his predecessor, to Posen. [citation needed] , author of novellæ to the Talmud born at Frankfurt in 1605 died while rabbi of Fulda in 1641, just after he had been called to the rabbinate of Prague was buried at Frankfurt. [citation needed] of Kraków elected in 1644 died in 1666. He was a pupil of Joel Sirkes, and inclined toward the Kabalah. Among his prominent pupils were Yair Bacharach and Meïr Stern. [citation needed] of Wilna called to Frankfurt in 1667 went to Kraków in 1677. He was the author of "Birkath ha-Zevach," commentary to some treatises of the Talmud. [citation needed] , son of Shabbethai Horowitz, and grandson of Isaiah Horowitz. David Grünhut, kabalist, cited by Johann Andreas Eisenmenger and Johann Jakob Schudt, was his contemporary. Hurwitz went to Posen. [citation needed] of Kraków elected 1690. He added valuable references to the Frankfurt edition of the Talmud (1721). His son, Judah Aryeh Löb, known as a writer, was associate rabbi Löb's father-in-law, Samuel Schotten, though rabbi at Darmstadt, was living at Frankfurt as "Klaus" rabbi, and after Samuel ben Zebi's death (1703) he became president of the rabbinate. [citation needed] called in 1704. As stated above, he was accused of having caused the fire of 1711, and, being compelled to leave the city, he wandered about for many years. [citation needed] , author of a commentary to the Mechilta. [citation needed] , author of "Noheg ke-tzon Yosef," a work on the ritual of the community of Frankfurt. [citation needed] , who issued in 1727 at Frankfurt his father's "Yad Kol Bo." The book was confiscated but was restored with the approval of several professors and preachers. [citation needed]

Naphtali Cohen's successors in the rabbinate of Frankfurt were as follows:

    of Prague died in 1717 famous both as a writer and as a scholar. of Prague called from Coblenz to Frankfurt. He was noted for his many pupils and for his learned correspondence, which is included in the responsa collection "Shev Ya'akov." He became involved in the current controversies in regard to Shabbethaism. (1741–56) known to Talmudists through his valuable Talmud commentary "Pnei Yehoshua" and to historians through his conflict with Jonathan Eybeschütz. During his rabbinate occurred the Kann-Kulp controversy mentioned above. Kulp's party was opposed to the rabbi and sided with Eybeschütz. Falk had to leave the city in consequence of this disturbance. He died at Offenbach am Main in 1756, at the age of 75, and was buried at Frankfurt. , Moses Rapp, and Nathan Maas took charge of the rabbinate until 1759. Maas was the real leader in the controversy in which the rabbinate of Frankfurt engaged with reference to the divorce granted at Cleve (referred to above), as his opinion was authoritative. elected in 1759 died in 1768. He was a notable Talmudist, and the author of "Birkath Avrohom" he also studied medicine. Maas again acted as deputy rabbi from 1769 to 1771 he is also known through his commentary to two treatises of the Talmud. elected 1771 died 1805. He was the author of "Hafla'ah" and other Talmudic works. Prominent scholars were at that time living at Frankfurt among them David Tebele Scheuer, who became rabbi at Mainz, and Nathan Adler, a strict ritualist, who gathered about him a group of men that attempted to introduce Chasidism into Frankfurt. The community, with the consent of the rabbi, soon found it necessary to proceed against Adler. Hurwitz also opposed the school of David Mendelssohn. , son of Pinchas Horowitz died September 8, 1817. He was the author of several haggadic and halachik works. elected 1844 officiated down to 1862 also known as poet and writer. , Samson Raphael Hirsch, Solomon Breuer, Nehemiah Brüll, M. Horovitz, and Rudolph Plaut succeeded Leopold Stein in the order named Seligsohn was elected to the office in 1903.

Philanthropic Institutions Edit

Among the philanthropic institutions of Frankfurt the following are important:

  • Achawa (Verein zur Brüderlichkeit 1864).
  • Almosenkasten der Israelitischen Gemeinde (1845).
  • Biḳḳur Ḥolim (1889).
  • Hersheim'sche Stiftung (for education of poor boys 1865).
  • Georgine Sara von Rothschild'sche Stiftung (1870 hospital, 1878).
  • Gumpertz'sches Siechenhaus (1888).
  • Israelitische Religionsschule (1890).
  • Israelitische Volksschule (1882).
  • Israelitische Waisenanstalt (founded 1873).
  • Israelitischer Hülfsverein (1883).
  • Israelitischer Kranken-Unterstützungs Verein (1843).
  • Israelitisches Frauen-Krankenhaus (society, 1761 hospital, 1831).
  • Israelitisches Gemeinde-Hospital (1875).
  • Israelitisches Kinderhospital.
  • Jüdische Haushaltungsschule.
  • Kindergarten für Israeliten (1890).
  • Lemaan Zion, Palästinensischer Hülfsverein.
  • Mädchenstift (1877).
  • Realschule der Israelitischen Gemeinde (Philanthropin founded by Sigmund Geisenheimer 1804).
  • Realschule der Israelitischen Religionsgesellschaft (1883).
  • Sigmund Stern'sche Waisenstiftung (1874).
  • Suppenanstalt für Israelitische Arme.
  • Verein zur Beförderung der Handwerke.
  • Verein für Jüdische Krankenpflegerinnen.
  • Versorgungs-Anstalt für Israeliten (1845).
  • Waisenhaus des Israelitischen Frauenvereins (1847) and a number of private "Stiftungen" established for various purposes.
  • For Jewish physicians see Horovitz "Jüdische Aerzte".

Bibliography Edit

Publishing Edit

The law of this free city decreeing that no Jew should establish a printing house there greatly impeded the development of Hebrew publishing in Frankfurt. Many books published there, especially prayer books, appeared without place of publication or publisher's name. Owing to this restriction, the printing requirements of Frankfurt were in large measure met by Jewish presses established in neighboring towns and villages, such as Hanau, Homburg, Offenbach, and Rödelheim, the last-named place being specially notable. Besides the local wants of Frankfurt there was the yearly fair which was practically the center of the German-Jewish book trade. In a measure the presses of the above four towns were really intended to supply the fair trade of Frankfurt.

According to Wolf ("Bibl. Hebr." ii. 1385), the history of Hebrew typography at Frankfurt-on-the-Main begins with 1625, in which year seliḥot were printed there. But Steinschneider and Cassel declare this statement doubtful. The chronogram of a certain prayer book seems to show that it was printed there in 1656, but this chronogram is known only from references to it in a second edition printed at Amsterdam in 1658 ("Cat. Bodl." Nos. 2149, 2152). It may be said with certainty, however, that Hebrew printing began in Frankfurt not later than 1662, when the Pentateuch with a German glossary was printed. The books printed at Frankfurt up to 1676 do not bear any printer's name.

From the year 1677 till the beginning of the eighteenth century there were two Christian printing establishments in Frankfurt at which Hebrew books were printed: (1) The press owned till 1694 by Balthasar Christian Wust, who began with David Clodius' Hebrew Bible his last work was the unvocalized Bible prepared by Eisenmenger, 1694 up to 1707 the press was continued by John Wust. Among his typesetters who worked on the "Amarot Ṭehorot" (1698) and the responsa "Ḥawwot Yaïr" were two Christians: Christian Nicolas and John Kaspar Pugil. (2) That of Blasius Ilsnerus, who printed in 1682 the "Ḥiddushe Haggadot" of Samuel Edels. Many works that appeared in the last quarter of the seventeenth century without bearing the names of either printers or publishers probably belong to the publications of Isaac and Seligmann, sons of Hirz Reis, who in 1687 published a beautiful edition of the Yalḳuṭ. Although the proprietors of the presses were Christians, the publishers were often Jews among them may be mentioned Joseph Trier Cohen (1690–1715), Leser Schuch, Solomon Hanau, and Solomon and Abraham, sons of Kalman, who in 1699 published through John Wust the Alfasi in three volumes.

The greatest period of Hebrew publishing in Frankfurt was the first quarter of the eighteenth century. Hebrew books were printed in several establishments, including those of Mat. Andrea (1707–10), Jo. Ph. Andrea (1716), Nicolas Weinmann (1709), Antony Heinscheit (1711–19), and, above all, John Kölner, who during the twenty years of his activity (1708–27) furnished half of the Hebrew works printed at Frankfurt up to the middle of the nineteenth century. Among the more important works printed by Kölner may be mentioned the "Bayit Ḥadash", in 5 vols., corrected by Samuel Dresles (1712–16), and the continuation of the Babylonian Talmud (1720–23) begun at Amsterdam, between which city and Frankfurt there was a sort of partnership in printing. Kölner printed with the same Amsterdam type the "Yeshu'ah be-Yisrael" (1719–20). He then conceived the idea of printing the Alfasi after the model of the Sabbionetta edition of 1554, a copy of which was bought for 40 thalers. He resolved upon printing 1,700 copies at the price of 10 thalers each the expenses, 11,000 thalers, were to have been obtained by means of a lottery that is to say, each subscriber was entitled to a copy of the book and to a lottery ticket but the whole plan miscarried.

Between the years 1726 and 1736 no Hebrew printing appears to have been done in Frankfurt, and during the last three-quarters of the eighteenth century very few Hebrew works were printed there. Among those printed "Toledot Adam", a Hebrew letter-writer printed in 1736 and in 1742 the responsa "Sheb Ya'aḳob", the three Babot of the Jerusalem Talmud, and the second part of the "Pene Yehoshua'", the third part appearing in 1756. Abraham Broda's "Eshel Abraham" was issued in 1776. Hebrew printing has continued at Frankfurt up to the present day.

Read or Stay Baffled.

On August 10, 2010, a.t.b., the Holy Empire of Britannia overpowered Japanese forces and conquered the country with their new, powerful, robotic weapons, the Knightmare Frames, in less than a month. In the aftermath of Britannia's invasion, Japan lost its freedom, its rights, and even its name, becoming Area 11 of the Britannian Empire. The Japanese people, renamed as "Elevens", are forced to survive in poor neighborhoods, while Britannians live in first-class settlements. Rebel elements persist, however, as pockets of Japanese organizations struggle against the Empire for the independence of Japan.

After his father, the Emperor of Britannia, failed to prevent the assassination of his mother, an attack which also left his sister blind and crippled, the young prince Lelouch vowed to destroy Britannia. Seven years later, he accidentally becomes mixed up with "terrorists" in Area 11 and encounters a mysterious girl named C.C., who gives him the power of Geass. With it, he finally has the power that he needs to defeat Britannia and fulfill his two wishes: to seek revenge for his mother and to construct a world in which his beloved sister Nunnally can live happily.

Code Geass is set in an alternate universe where the Holy Empire of Britannia, an international superpower, has conquered more than a third of the planet. The world is, for the most part, divided between it and two other superpowers: the Chinese Federation and the Euro Universe. Australia has remained independent of the other powers though it is not significantly mentioned in the story. The three powers maintain a tentative balance for the first part of the series. The balance shifts in the second season. The E.U. has much of its territory conquered by Britannia while Lelouch engineers a revolution in the Chinese Federation and creates a new alliance of countries, the United Federation of Nations, reducing the number of superpowers to two.

The Holy Britannian Empire (神聖ブリタニア帝国, Shinsei Buritania Teikoku?) is an imperial monarchy and the most prominent superpower within the world of Code Geass, controlling over one-third of the world at the start of the series, which expands as the series progresses. Its homeland is based in North America, and its imperial city is Pendragon. Britannian society is elitist and is run based on a caricature of Social Darwinism. Society is arranged by ranks of nobility.

During season 1, the Britannian Empire controls the entire Western Hemisphere (both American continents), New Zealand, and recently conquered Japan. Early in season 1, Britannia conquers "Area 18", a desert region that is a part of the Middle East. During season 2, Britannia successfully conquers about half of the rival "Euro Universe" superpower taking over France, Spain, the western half of Africa, and Russia. Ironically, Britannia does not control the British Isles, as Napoleon successfully conquered them.

Territories conquered by the Britannian Empire are renamed with an "Area" number based on when they were conquered and the native people are referred to by their area number or just called "Numbers" Japan, being the eleventh territory conquered, is Area 11 and its people are "Elevens", for example. The Numbers are denied many of the rights of Britannian citizens, and are usually left to live in poverty. They can apply for Honorary Britannian citizenship to earn basic rights, but cannot attain the same status as regular citizens.

In the series, history diverged during Julius Caesar's invasion. A Celtic "super-king" was elected, similar to the Arverni chieftain Vercingetorix, and managed to successfully resist the invasion, beginning the Britannian imperial line. It should be noted that Britain successfully resisted Julius Caesars invasions (both) in real life but without a "super-king". As a result, the empire retained absolute monarchy, suppressed the American colonies' rebellion in 1776, and eventually migrated the capital to America following Napoleon's capture of Britain. The timeline diverged since Caesar's invasion, but the history of the empire began to become drastically different with the death of Elizabeth I: instead of the Tudor dynasty ending, she was instead succeeded by her illegitimate son "Henry IX". "Elizabeth III" died after losing the British Isles to Napoleon, and a new royal line was established from a prominent family of the nobility. The Britannian calendar era is "Ascension Throne Britannia" (a.t.b), known as the Imperial Calendar in the English dub. Its epoch is the date when the super-king was elected, roughly fifty years earlier than that of the Gregorian calendar.

Japan, renamed as Area 11 under Britannian rule, is the source of over 70% of the world's total supply of sakuradite, a fictional mineral with a high energy content. Japan oppressed and dominated other countries through economic control of the mineral prior to the start of the series, leading to its invasion and eventual takeover by Britannia. Japan serves as the main setting for much of the series, as it is where Ashford Academy, Lelouch's school, is located. Under his alter-ego of Zero, Lelouch attempts to reform it as an independent nation, the "United States of Japan", as part of his quest to overthrow Britannia.

The Chinese Federation (中華連邦, Chūka Renpō?) is an imperial monarchy that spans the Asian and Pacific regions, including Central, South, East and Southeast Asia with Sakhalin and the Korean Peninsula. Its territory extends further north than real-world China to include Vladivostok and westward to include Afghanistan and Pakistan, but not Iran. Its population is the largest of the three major powers, but most live in poverty. Its political structure and organization appears to resemble the real-world Empire of China. The Emperor of the Federation holds absolute political power, but under Empress Tianzi, it is reduced to an effectively symbolic figurehead posting, "a symbol of the state and the unity of the people." As with the real-world Emperor of Japan, the individual who holds the title is regarded as a living divinity whose sovereignty is entirely ceremonial. The Vermilion Forbidden City (朱禁城, Shu Kinjō?) is the seat of the Chinese Emperor and the government of the Federation — a large palace situated in the capital city of Luoyang. The governmental organization known as the "High Eunuchs" (大宦官, Dai Kangan?), advisers to the Empress, use her power for their own gain.

In the first season, the Chinese Federation unsuccessfully attempts to take over Japan through the use of former government officials that fled during the war. India has also been trying to overthrow Chinese rule, and already have a large organized resistance movement. As a result, the Indian resistance lends their lead weapons R&D scientist, Rakshata, to the Black Knights in Japan, in the hopes that a future independent Japan will in return aide them in gaining independence from China. In the second season, a Chinese consulate is established with the agreement of the local Britannian authorities, and negotiations are held by Eunuch Gao Hai to the end of obtaining a solid Chinese foothold within the colony. After the Black Knights are exiled from Japan, they are granted control of Horai Island (蓬萊島?), a fictional artificial land mass built off the coast of China to generate electricity through tidal activity. The Black Knights destabilize and overthrow the government, returning control to the Empress. Shortly after, the Federation collapses and its former member states are incorporated into the new United Federation of Nations.

Euro Universe
The Euro Universe (ユーロ・ユニバース, Yūro Yunibāsu?), or E.U., is a democratic union. It has long been in conflict with Britannia. It encompasses all of Europe (including the British Isles), Africa, and Russia. Unlike the other countries, focus on the E.U. is minimal. In the second season, Schneizel leads the Britannian forces against the E.U., successfully conquering almost half of their territory. Territories which fell to Britannia include Portugal, Spain, France, half of Africa and all of Russia. Following this, former E.U. nations Italy and Poland were two of the forty-seven nations to join Zero's United Federation of Nations. The only nations remaining as part of the E.U. are the British Isles, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Ukraine and an area of Africa near the Congo. Due to the significant decrease in the E.U.'s territory and power, Charles zi Britannia no longer considers the E.U. a threat.

United Federation of Nations

Following the collapse of the E.U. and the uprising in the Chinese Federation, most of the remaining territories not under Britannian control join forces and form the United Federation of Nations, a new coalition to counter the Empire's advance. The U.F.N. flag is a white dove with three circles merging at the point where the wings and body meet, with a yellow background. Their combined territories split the world between the Empire and the Federation.

The U.F.N. is composed of forty-seven countries spread across parts of Eastern Europe, Eastern Africa, and the majority of the Asian continent. Decisions in the U.F.N. are determined by a two-thirds majority vote by the leaders of each country, with the population of each country determining their voting percentage. The individual armies of the member nations are abolished and replaced by a new supranational military force under the Black Knights' control.

Geass (ギアス, giasu?) is a mysterious ability which certain people can bestow upon others C.C. is the most prominent character who grants the power of Geass. The form the Geass takes is different in each individual. C.C. calls Geass the Power of Kings (王の力, Ō no Chikara?). It is represented by a bird-shaped symbol which glows red when active.

Every Geass has its own unique set of restrictions, limitations, or idiosyncrasies. These factors allow a Geass to be defeated, or its power limited, by someone who is aware of its characteristics. All Geass abilities that have thus far appeared within the canon of the television series have been related to the mind, influencing such aspects as will, thought, memory, emotion, and perception. Geass abilities in the manga spin-off Knightmare of Nunnally have no such limitations.

The power of Geass increases with use, usually starting in one eye. It can eventually spread to both eyes and become uncontrollable with repeated use. At this point, the one who granted the power can relinquish his or her immortality to the recipient, allowing the recipient to continue the cycle while the giver is allowed to die. The immortality is referred to as the giver's "Code," and grants the person immunity to Geass in exchange for their original power.

According to an English edition of Newtype, the power of Geass has something to do with the very existence of humankind, and it may be used to destroy or transform just about anything. "Geass" may be an intentional corruption of the word geas or geis, a term for a type of magical contract in Irish mythology.

Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt (technically Frankfurt am Main) is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. Evidence of a Jewish community in Frankfurt can be traced back to the 12th century.

In the Middle Ages

Evidence of a Jewish community in Frankfurt, a city on the Main river in western Germany, dates to the 12th century. At that time, a small group of Jewish merchants from Worms settled in the town, and quickly flourished and grew wealthy. Jews had been in Frankfurt prior to this period as well, but never as official residents &ndash Frankfurt had long been a market town, and Jews visited to trade there as early as the tenth century.

Frankfurt &rsquo s Jewish cemetery, which dates to the 13th century (photograph circa 1853)

The prosperity of the Frankfurt Jews, however, was short lived. The year 1241 marked the first of what would be many massacres and expulsions of the small community. In this first attack, which was sparked by the refusal of a Jew to convert to Christianity, more than three-quarters of the city&rsquos 200 residents were killed. The remainder quickly fled the city, but returned by about 1270, when Emperor Frederick II, upset at the loss in tax-revenue from the wealthy Jewish community, ordered strict penalties against anyone who attacked Jews. The community once again grew rapidly, and although forced to pay crippling taxes, was protected against any physical persecution.

The outbreak of the Black Plague in 1349, however, changed the Jews&rsquo protected status. Jews were killed and expelled throughout Germany and Europe, and Frankfurt was no exception. The community was completely massacred, and many Jews chose to burn down their own houses while still inside rather than face death from the angry mob.

The Frankfurt Judengasse in 1890

Because of their important economic role, Jews were invited back into Frankfurt once again in 1360. Their lives in the city, however, were regulated more strictly than ever, culminating in the forcible relocation of all the Jews of Frankfurt to a ghetto (Juddengasse) in 1462.

Originally containing just 110 inhabitants, the community developed quickly, and consisted of 3,000 by 1610. Because the area of the ghetto was never expanded, Jews subdivided their houses and built extra stories to accommodate the exponential growth. The community soon became a center of Ashkenazi Jewry &ndash the yeshivas in the city attracted students from all over Europe, and the community grew very wealthy.

In 1616, another pogrom came through the community. Indeed, affluence was a necessity, for the only way the Jewish community continued to exist in the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries was by paying enormous tributes in exchange for protection.

In 1624, the two centuries of peace came to a crashing halt as the ghetto was raided and plundered by a mob of artisans and petty merchants, led by Vincent Fettmilch. The group was unhappy with the prominent position of the Jews, and many also owed money to the Jewish moneylenders. Unlike the previous expulsions, however, this one ended happily for the Jewish residents of Frankfurt. The emperor outlawed the rioters, put their leaders to death, and ceremoniously returned the Jew to the ghetto on the twentieth day of the month of Adar, which has been celebrated in Frankfurt ever since as &ldquoPurim Winz&rdquo (&ldquothe Purim of Vincent&rdquo).

Toward Modernity

The New Synagogue, built outside of the traditional ghetto area

In 1711, the ghetto burned to the ground after an accidental fire spread out of control, but the homes and businesses were quickly rebuilt, and the Jews returned to their isolation. The traditional unity of the Jewish population, however, soon began to decline, as controversy over the Enlightenment and the conflict between Rabbi Jacob Emden and Rabbi Jonathan Eybeschuetz spread throughout Europe. The rich families that had long controlled the community saw their influence begin to decline these families, identifiable by the crests hanging outside their homes, lost their influence to the maskilim, who advocated secular education and emancipation. The only exception was the Red Shield, or Rothschild family, which maintained its importance, and became even more prominent in later years.

When, in 1806, Frankfurt was incorporated into Napoleon&rsquos Confederation of the Rhine, the Jews&rsquo lot improved, at least in the eyes of the advocates of emancipation. The spread of the ideals of the French Revolution led to the abolition of the ghetto in 1811.

Despite setbacks in 1819 due to the &ldquoHep riots,&rdquo Jews received rights equal to those of non-Jews in1824. Frankfurt had by now become a center of the Reform movement, the ascendance of which led to a widening rift between the Orthodox and Reform communities. The latter was led during much of the nineteenth century by philosopher Abraham Geiger the former, which accounted for only ten percent of Frankfurt&rsquos Jewish population in 1842, was revived by Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, who founded the Orthodox &ldquoIsraelitische Religionsgesellschaft&rdquo (&ldquoIsraelite Church Society&rdquo) in 1851. The community continued to grow and become wealthy members of the Rothschild family in particular became known for their philanthropy. Several orthodox yeshivas were established, as was a Reform Institute for Jewish Studies, which featured lectures by the scholar Martin Buber.

By the 1900s, Jews in Frankfurt were extremely prosperous and influential. They became active both in business and politics. Many of the Jews fought for Germany in World War I.

Frankfurt & the Holocaust

In 1933, a boycott was targeted at the Jews, and in the subsequent years, more and more restrictions were placed on the Jewish community. On November 10, 1938, the biggest Orthodox and Reform synagogues were burned to the ground. Many Jews emigrated from Frankfurt, and most of those who did not were sent to the Lodz ghetto, and eventually to the Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps. In 1933, 30,000 Jews lived in Frankfurt in 1945, only 602 remained.

The Community Today

After the war, a new community was established, consisting of a small number of mostly assimilated Holocaust survivors and displaced persons (DPs). The DPs came from across Eastern Europe, most of whom planned to immigrate elsewhere but were forced to stay in camps, sometimes for years. After Israel became independent, and the United States adopted the Displaced Persons Act, the Jews were finally free to go and most left.

&ldquoSome stayed for a variety of reasons,&rdquo Tobias Freimuller, deputy director of the Fritz Bauer Institute. explained. &ldquoBecause they were too old, too sick, because they couldn&rsquot speak English or Hebrew, or maybe because they ended up starting a small business or found another way to start making money.&rdquo Most were not originally from Frankfurt, so the community was essentially starting off fresh.

In 1949, West Germany passed legislation to compensate Holocaust survivors. Freimuller called it &ldquoa signal in front of the German elite, the press, and the people that Jewish life would be protected.&rdquo

In 1989, immigrants from the recently disbanded Soviet Union increased the size of the community. Today, most of the Jews live in the West End, and are self-employed, particularly as shop-keepers and real-estate brokers. Anti-Semitism is negligible instead, assimilation is the community&rsquos dominant social problem. The city has one large synagogue, three smaller ones, and a prayer room at the airport.

There are few remnants of Frankfurt&rsquos Jewish community left today. The ghetto has been gone for more than a century, but the spot on which it stood is still accessible. Not far from the Zeil &ndash the pedestrian mall running through the city&rsquos center &ndash on Bornestrasse, is the stretch of land on which the Frankfurt Jews lived for more than 400 years. The Bornestrasse synagogue and the Rothschild home were both destroyed, but plaques mark the spots where they stood.

The Westend synagogue, on Freiherr-vom-Stein-Strasse, is the only Jewish building in the city with a history. The large grey building was built early in the 1900s, and was the only synagogue to survive Kristallnacht. Near the synagogue is Frankfurt&rsquos Jewish community center, a huge building adorned with large iron menorahs and stone tablets. The building features concerts, lectures and information on all things Jewish in Frankfurt.

The Jewish museum on Untermainkai is located in a house that once belonged to the Rothschild family, and features high-tech resources as well as priceless artifacts, including Moritz Oppenheimer&rsquos famous portrait of Mendelsohn and Lessing. But the most famous part of the museum is the scale-model of the Frankfurt Juddengasse, reconstructed using the blueprints made in 1711 after it was destroyed by fire. The intricate model includes 194 buildings. In 2020, the museum completed a $58 million expansion that includes a new Frank Family Center containing artifacts from Anne Frank&rsquos family (Frank was born in Frankfurt), such as silverware, porcelain and artworks that surviving family members in Basel, Switzerland, kept throughout World War II.

In 2021, a new center for Jewish studies &ndash the Buber-Rosenzweig-Institute for Modern and Contemporary Jewish Intellectual and Cultural History &ndash has opened at Goethe University. The program is named for Martin Buber and Franz Rosenzweig, who established the Free Jewish Teaching House in Frankfurt.

Today, approximately 6,600 Jews live in Frankfurt out of a total population of 753,000. Despite the city being safe, with less anti-Semitism than some other parts of Germany, many residents, especially from the older generation, feel a certain level of anxiety and believe they need to be prepared to leave at any time. Others believe they live in the &ldquosafest place for Jews to be, because the whole world is watching Germany.&rdquo

Sources: &ldquoFrankfurt.&rdquo Encyclopedia Britannica.
&ldquoFrankfurt.&rdquo Encyclopedia Judaica.
Paul Mendes-Flohrand Judah Reinharz, The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History, Oxford University Press. New York, 1995.
Alan Tigay, The Jewish Traveler, Jason Aronson, Inc. Northvale, NJ, 1994.
Joe Baur, &ldquoAfter World War II, there were 100 Jews left in Frankfurt. Today, the community has a potent voice,&rdquo Forward, (July 6, 2020)
Cnaan Liphshiz, &ldquoFrankfurt Jewish museum&rsquos $58 million extension reclaims Anne Frank&rsquos forgotten roots in the city,&rdquo JTA, (August 25, 2020).
Toby Axelrod, &ldquoNew Jewish studies program launches at large Frankfurt university,&rdquo JTA, (February 10, 2021).

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Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market.

In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. [6]

Frankfurt is considered a global city (alpha world city) as listed by the GaWC group's 2012 inventory. [7] Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th in the 2013 Global Financial Centres Index.

Its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air, rail and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations. [8] Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most heavily used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. [9] In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual 'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. [10] According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. [11]

Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline. It is one of the few cities in the European Union (EU) to have such a skyline, which is why Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, combining the local Main River and "Manhattan". The other well-known nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was noted for its unique old town, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe. The Römer area was later rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for events such as Christmas markets. Other parts of the old town were reconstructed as part of the Dom-Römer Project from 2012 to 2018.

Frankonovurd (in Old High German) or Vadum Francorum (in Latin) were the first names mentioned in written records from 794. It transformed to Frankenfort during the Middle Ages and then to Franckfort and Franckfurth in the modern era. According to historian David Gans, the city was named c. 146 AD by its builder, a Frankish king named Zuna, who ruled over the province then known as Sicambri. He hoped thereby to perpetuate the name of his lineage. [12] The name is derived from the Franconofurd of the Germanic tribe of the Franks Furt (cf. English ford) where the river was shallow enough to be crossed on foot.

By the 19th century, the name Frankfurt had been established as the official spelling. The older English spelling of Frankfort is now rarely seen in reference to Frankfurt am Main, although more than a dozen other towns and cities, mainly in the United States, use this spelling (e.g., Frankfort, Kentucky Frankfort, New York Frankfort, Illinois).

The suffix am Main has been used regularly since the 14th century. In English, the city's full name of Frankfurt am Main means "Frankfurt on the Main" (pronounced like English mine or German mein). Frankfurt is located on an ancient ford (German: Furt) on the Main River. As a part of early Franconia, the inhabitants were the early Franks, thus the city's name reveals its legacy as "the ford of the Franks on the Main". [13]

Among English speakers, the city is commonly known simply as Frankfurt, but Germans occasionally call it by its full name to distinguish it from the other (significantly smaller) German city of Frankfurt an der Oder in the Land of Brandenburg on the Polish border.

The city district Bonames has a name probably dating back to Roman times, thought to be derived from bona me(n)sa (good table).

The common abbreviations for the city, primarily used in railway services and on road signs, are Frankfurt (Main), Frankfurt (M), Frankfurt a. M., Frankfurt/Main or Frankfurt/M. The common abbreviation for the name of the city is "FFM". Also in use is "FRA", the IATA code for Frankfurt Airport.

Early history and Holy Roman Empire Edit

Roman settlements were established in the area of the Römer, probably in the first century. Nida (Heddernheim, Praunheim) was also a Roman civitas capital.

Alemanni and Franks lived there, and by 794, Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly and church synod, at which Franconofurd (alternative spellings end with -furt and -vurd) was first mentioned. It was one of the two capitals of Charlemagne's grandson Louis the German, together with Regensburg. Louis founded the collegiate church, rededicated in 1239 to Bartholomew the Apostle and now Frankfurt Cathedral. [14]

Frankfurt was one of the most important cities in the Holy Roman Empire. From 855, the German kings were elected and crowned in Aachen. From 1562, the kings and emperors were crowned and elected in Frankfurt, initiated for Maximilian II. This tradition ended in 1792, when Franz II was elected. His coronation was deliberately held on Bastille Day, 14 July, the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. The elections and coronations took place in St. Bartholomäus Cathedral, known as the Kaiserdom (Emperor's Cathedral), or its predecessors.

The Frankfurter Messe (Frankfurt Trade Fair) was first mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II granted an imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the empire. The fair became particularly important when similar fairs in French Beaucaire lost attraction around 1380. Book trade fairs began in 1478.

In 1372, Frankfurt became a Reichsstadt (Imperial Free City), i.e., directly subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor and not to a regional ruler or a local nobleman.

In 1585, Frankfurt traders established a system of exchange rates for the various currencies that were circulating to prevent cheating and extortion. Therein lay the early roots for the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.

Frankfurt managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War, but suffered from the bubonic plague that refugees brought to the city. After the war, Frankfurt regained its wealth. In the late 1770s the theatre principal Abel Seyler was based in Frankfurt, and established the city's theatrical life. [15]

Impact of French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars Edit

Following the French Revolution, Frankfurt was occupied or bombarded several times by French troops. It remained a free city until the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805/6. In 1806, it became part of the principality of Aschaffenburg under the Fürstprimas (Prince-Primate), Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg. This meant that Frankfurt was incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine. In 1810, Dalberg adopted the title of a Grand Duke of Frankfurt. Napoleon intended to make his adopted son Eugène de Beauharnais, already Prince de Venise ("prince of Venice", a newly established primogeniture in Italy), Grand Duke of Frankfurt after Dalberg's death (since the latter as a Catholic bishop had no legitimate heirs). The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from 1810 to 1813 when the military tide turned in favour of the Anglo-Prussian-led allies that overturned the Napoleonic order. Dalberg abdicated in favour of Eugène de Beauharnais, which of course was only a symbolic action, as the latter effectively never ruled after the ruin of the French armies and Frankfurt's takeover by the allies.

Frankfurt as a fully sovereign state Edit

After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815) dissolved the grand-duchy and Frankfurt became a fully sovereign city-state with a republican form of government. Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation (till 1866) as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag, the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy".

After the ill-fated revolution of 1848, Frankfurt was the seat of the first democratically elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament, which met in the Frankfurter Paulskirche (St. Paul's Church) and was opened on 18 May 1848. The institution failed in 1849 when the Prussian king, Frederick William IV, declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.

Frankfurt after the loss of sovereignty Edit

Frankfurt lost its independence after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 when Prussia annexed several smaller states, among them the Free City of Frankfurt. The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The Prussian occupation and annexation were perceived as a great injustice in Frankfurt, which retained its distinct western European, urban and cosmopolitan character. The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in 1890.

In 1914, the citizens founded the University of Frankfurt, later named Goethe University Frankfurt. This marked the only civic foundation of a university in Germany today it is one of Germany's largest.

From 6 April to 17 May 1920, following military intervention to put down the Ruhr uprising, Frankfurt was occupied by French troops. [16] The French claimed that Articles 42 to 44 of the peace treaty of Versailles concerning the demilitarisation of the Rhineland had been broken. [17] In 1924, Ludwig Landmann became the first Jewish mayor of the city, and led a significant expansion during the following years. During the Nazi era, the synagogues of the city were destroyed.

Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II (1939–1945). About 5,500 residents were killed during the raids, and the once-famous medieval city centre, by that time the largest in Germany, was almost completely destroyed. It became a ground battlefield on 26 March 1945, when the Allied advance into Germany was forced to take the city in contested urban combat that included a river assault. The 5th Infantry Division and the 6th Armored Division of the United States Army captured Frankfurt after several days of intense fighting, and it was declared largely secure on 29 March 1945. [18]

After the end of the war, Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse-(Darmstadt) and the Prussian Hesse provinces. The city was part of the American Zone of Occupation of Germany. The Military Governor for the United States Zone (1945–1949) and the United States High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) (1949–1952) had their headquarters in the IG Farben Building, intentionally left undamaged by the Allies' wartime bombardment.

Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital city of the newly founded state of West Germany in 1949. The city constructed a parliament building that was never used for its intended purpose (it housed the radio studios of Hessischer Rundfunk). In the end, Konrad Adenauer, the first postwar Chancellor, preferred the town of Bonn, for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also because many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt would be accepted as the permanent capital, thereby weakening the West German population's support for a reunification with East Germany and the eventual return of the capital to Berlin.

Postwar reconstruction took place in a sometimes simple modern style, thus changing Frankfurt's architectural face. A few landmark buildings were reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner (e.g., Römer, St. Paul's Church, and Goethe House). The collection of historically significant Cairo Genizah documents of the Municipal Library was destroyed by the bombing. According to Arabist and Genizah scholar S.D. Goitein, "not even handlists indicating its contents have survived." [19]

The end of the war marked Frankfurt's comeback as Germany's leading financial centre, mainly because Berlin, now a city divided into four sectors, could no longer rival it. In 1948, the allies founded the Bank deutscher Länder, the forerunner of Deutsche Bundesbank. Following this decision, more financial institutions were re-established, e.g. Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank. In the 1950s, Frankfurt Stock Exchange regained its position as the country's leading stock exchange.

Frankfurt also re-emerged as Germany's transportation centre and Frankfurt Airport became Europe's second-busiest airport behind London Heathrow Airport in 1961.

During the 1970s, the city created one of Europe's most efficient underground transportation systems. [20] That system includes a suburban rail system (S-Bahn) linking outlying communities with the city centre, and a deep underground light rail system with smaller coaches (U-Bahn) also capable of travelling above ground on rails.

Frankfurt is the largest city in the federated state of Hesse in the south-western part of Germany.

Site Edit

Frankfurt is located on both sides of the Main River, south-east of the Taunus mountain range. The southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt City Forest, Germany's largest city forest. The city area is 248.31 km 2 (95.87 sq mi) and extends over 23.4 km (14.54 mi) east to west and 23.3 km (14.48 mi) north to south. The city centre is north of the River Main in Altstadt district (the historical centre) and the surrounding Innenstadt district. The geographical centre is in Bockenheim district near Frankfurt West station.

Frankfurt is the centre of the densely populated Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region with a population of 5.5 million. Other important cities in the region are Wiesbaden (capital of Hesse), Mainz (capital of Rhineland-Palatinate), Darmstadt, Offenbach am Main, Hanau, Aschaffenburg, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Rüsselsheim, Wetzlar and Marburg.

Districts Edit

The city is divided into 46 city districts (Stadtteile), which are in turn divided into 121 city boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 448 electoral districts (Wahlbezirke). The 46 city districts combine into 16 area districts (Ortsbezirke), which each have a district committee and chairperson.

The largest city district by population and area is Sachsenhausen, while the smallest is Altstadt, Frankfurt's historical center. Three larger city districts (Sachsenhausen, Westend and Nordend) are divided for administrative purposes into a northern (-Nord) and a southern (-Süd) part, respectively a western (-West) and an eastern (-Ost) part, but are generally considered as one city district (which is why often only 43 city districts are mentioned, even on the city's official website). [21]

Some larger housing areas are often falsely called city districts, even by locals, like Nordweststadt (part of Niederursel, Heddernheim and Praunheim), Goldstein (part of Schwanheim), Riedberg (part of Kalbach-Riedberg) and Europaviertel (part of Gallus). The Bankenviertel (banking district), Frankfurt's financial district, is also not an administrative city district (it covers parts of the western Innenstadt district, the southern Westend district and the eastern Bahnhofsviertel district).

Many city districts are incorporated suburbs (Vororte) or were previously independent cities, such as Höchst. Some like Nordend and Westend arose during the rapid growth of the city in the Gründerzeit following the Unification of Germany, while others were formed from territory which previously belonged to other city district(s), such as Dornbusch and Riederwald.

History of incorporations Edit

Until the year 1877 the city's territory consisted of the present-day inner-city districts of Altstadt, Innenstadt, Bahnhofsviertel, Gutleutviertel, Gallus, Westend, Nordend, Ostend and Sachsenhausen.

Bornheim was part of an administrative district called Landkreis Frankfurt, before becoming part of the city on 1 January 1877, followed by Bockenheim on 1 April 1895. Seckbach, Niederrad and Oberrad followed on 1 July 1900. The Landkreis Frankfurt was finally dispersed on 1 April 1910, and therefore Berkersheim, Bonames, Eckenheim, Eschersheim, Ginnheim, Hausen, Heddernheim, Niederursel, Praunheim, Preungesheim and Rödelheim joined the city. In the same year a new city district, Riederwald, was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Seckbach and Ostend.

On 1 April 1928 the City of Höchst became part of Frankfurt, as well as its city districts Sindlingen, Unterliederbach and Zeilsheim. Simultaneously the Landkreis Höchst was dispersed with its member cities either joining Frankfurt (Fechenheim, Griesheim, Nied, Schwanheim, Sossenheim) or joining the newly established Landkreis of Main-Taunus-Kreis.

Dornbusch became a city district in 1946. It was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Eckenheim and Ginnheim.

On 1 August 1972, Hesse's smaller suburbs of Harheim, Kalbach, Nieder-Erlenbach, and Nieder-Eschbach became districts while other neighbouring suburbs chose to join the Main-Taunus-Kreis, the Landkreis Offenbach, the Kreis Groß-Gerau, the Hochtaunuskreis, the Main-Kinzig-Kreis or the Wetteraukreis.

Bergen-Enkheim was the last suburb to become part of Frankfurt on 1 January 1977.

Flughafen became an official city district in 1979. It covers the area of Frankfurt Airport that had belonged to Sachsenhausen and the neighbouring city of Mörfelden-Walldorf.

Frankfurt's youngest city district is Frankfurter Berg. It was part of Bonames until 1996.

Kalbach was officially renamed Kalbach-Riedberg in 2006 because of the large residential housing development in the area known as Riedberg.

Neighbouring districts and cities Edit

Together with these towns (and some larger nearby towns, e.g., Hanau, Rodgau, Dreieich, Langen) Frankfurt forms a contiguous built-up urban area called Stadtregion Frankfurt which is not an official administrative district. The urban area had an estimated population of 2.3 million in 2010, and is the 13th-largest urban area in the EU.

Climate Edit

Frankfurt has a temperate-oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb). Its average annual temperature is 10.6 °C (51.1 °F), with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.6 °C (34.9 °F) in January to 20.0 °C (68.0 °F) in July (Data from between 1981 and 2010)

Due to its location at the northern tip of the Upper Rhine Valley in the Southwest of Germany, Frankfurt is one of the warmest and driest bigger German cities together with cities like Darmstadt, Mannheim, Karlsruhe and Freiburg im Breisgau. Summers in Frankfurt can get very warm, when compared to the rest of the country. Between the years 1981 and 2010 there have been 52 days in Frankfurt with a maximum temperature over 25 °C and 13 days with a maximum over 30 °C on average per year.

Climate change elevates the number of hot days. In the year of 2018, there have been recorded 108 days with a maximum of over 25 °C and 43 days with a maximum of over 30 °C (compared to 52 and 13 days on average per year between 1981 and 2010). The overall tendency for higher temperatures can be seen when comparing the climate data from 1981 to 2010 with the data from 2010 to 2020. It is getting sunnier, drier and warmer.

Being an urban heat island, Frankfurt is sometimes affected by tropical nights, where the temperature does not drop under 20°C between May and September. This occurs because the density of the city causes it to store all the heat.

The growing season is longer when compared to the rest of Germany, thus resulting in an early arrival of springtime in the region.

Winters in Frankfurt are generally mild or at least not freezing with a small possibility of snow, especially in January and February but dark and often overcast. Frankfurt is, on average, covered with snow only for around 10 to 20 days per year. [22] The temperatures fell at about 70 days under 0°C and daily maximum has stayed under 0°C for about 13 days on average per year between 1981 and 2010. Some days with lows under -10 °C can occur more often here than at the coasts of Northern Germany, but not that frequently like in Bavaria or the eastern parts of Germany.

Because of the mild climate in the region, there are some well-known wine regions not far away such as Rhenish Hesse, Rheingau, Franconia (wine region) and Bergstraße (route). There is also a microclimate on the northern bank of the River Main which is responsible for palms, fig trees, lemon trees and southern European plants growing in that area. The area is called the "Nizza" (the German word for the southern French town Nice) and is one of the biggest parks with a Mediterranean vegetation north of the Alps. [23]

Climate data for Frankfurt Airport 1981–2010, extremes 1949–present (sunshine duration and precipitation rounded)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.9
Average high °C (°F) 4.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.6
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
Record low °C (°F) −21.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45
Average rainy days 16 13 14 14 15 15 14 14 12 12 14 16 169
Mean monthly sunshine hours 50 80 121 178 211 219 233 219 156 103 51 41 1,662
Percent possible sunshine 18 29 33 42 45 46 47 51 40 30 19 16 35
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst [24]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (sunshine data) [25]
Climate data for Frankfurt Airport February 2011-February 2021 (recent 10 years)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
Average low °C (°F) 0.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42.4
Average rainy days 11 8 7 6 8 8 8 9 6 9 8 12 100
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 86 153 206 231 224 240 222 182 100 56 34 1,777
Source 1: wetteronline.de (high and low temperature and rain days data) [26]
Source 2: weatheronline.de (sunshine, mean temperature and precipitation data) [27]
Climate data for Frankfurt
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 9.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 16.0 14.0 13.0 11.0 9.0 8.0 12.3
Average Ultraviolet index 1 1 3 4 6 7 6 6 4 2 1 1 3.5
Source: Weather Atlas [25]

Population Edit

Historical population
YearPop. ±%
Largest groups of foreign residents [28]
Nationality Population (30 June 2019)
Turkey 25,294
Croatia 16,151
Italy 15,120
Poland 12,174
Romania 10,451
Serbia 9,404
Bulgaria 8,509
India 7,412
Spain 7,261
Greece 6,381
Morocco 6,175
Bosnia and Herzegovina 6,142
Afghanistan 5,114
China 4,662
France 4,609
Algeria 4,087
Portugal 3,991

With a population of 763,380 (2019) within its administrative boundaries [29] and of 2,300,000 in the actual urban area, [4] Frankfurt is the fifth-largest city in Germany, after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Cologne. Central Frankfurt has been a Großstadt (a city with at least 100,000 residents by definition) since 1875. With 414,576 residents in 1910, it was the ninth largest city in Germany and the number of inhabitants grew to 553,464 before World War II. After the war, at the end of the year 1945, the number had dropped to 358,000. In the following years, the population grew again and reached an all-time-high of 691,257 in 1963. It dropped again to 592,411 in 1986 but has increased since then. According to the demographic forecasts for central Frankfurt, the city will have a population up to 813,000 within its administrative boundaries in 2035 [30] and more than 2.5 million inhabitants in its urban area.

During the 1970s, the state government of Hesse wanted to expand the city's administrative boundaries to include the entire urban area. This would have made Frankfurt officially the second-largest city in Germany after Berlin with up to 3 million inhabitants. [31] However, because local authorities did not agree, the administrative territory is still much smaller than its actual urban area.

Population of the 46 city districts on 31 December 2009
City district (Stadtteil)
Area in km 2 [32]
Population [33]
Foreign nationals [33]
Foreign nationals in % [33]
Area district (Ortsbezirk)
0 1 Altstadt 0.51 3.475 1.122 32.3 01 – Innenstadt I
0 2 Innenstadt 1.52 6.577 2.529 38.5 01 – Innenstadt I
0 3 Bahnhofsviertel 0.53 2.125 810 38.1 01 – Innenstadt I
0 4 Westend-Süd 2.47 17.288 3.445 19.9 02 – Innenstadt II
0 5 Westend-Nord 1.67 8.854 2.184 24.7 02 – Innenstadt II
0 6 Nordend-West 3.07 28.808 5.162 17.9 03 – Innenstadt III
0 7 Nordend-Ost 1.69 26.619 5.580 21.0 03 – Innenstadt III
0 8 Ostend 5.40 26.955 7.213 26.8 04 – Bornheim/Ostend
0 9 Bornheim 2.66 27.184 6.240 23.0 04 – Bornheim/Ostend
10 Gutleutviertel 2.20 5.843 1.953 33.4 01 – Innenstadt I
11 Gallus 4.22 26.716 11.012 41.2 01 – Innenstadt I
12 Bockenheim 8.04 34.740 9.034 26.0 02 – Innenstadt II
13 Sachsenhausen-Nord 4.24 30.374 6.507 21.4 05 – Süd
14 Sachsenhausen-Süd 34.91 26.114 4.847 18.6 05 – Süd
15 Flughafen 20.00 211 14 6.6 05 – Süd
16 Oberrad 2.74 12.828 3.113 24.3 05 – Süd
17 Niederrad 2.93 22.954 6.569 28.6 05 – Süd
18 Schwanheim 17.73 20.162 3.532 17.5 06 – West
19 Griesheim 4.90 22.648 8.029 35.5 06 – West
20 Rödelheim 5.15 17.841 4.863 27.3 07 – Mitte-West
21 Hausen 1.26 7.178 2.135 29.7 07 – Mitte-West
22/23 Praunheim 4.55 15.761 3.197 20.3 07 – Mitte-West
24 Heddernheim 2.49 16.443 3.194 19.4 08 – Nord-West
25 Niederursel 7.22 16.394 3.671 22.4 08 – Nord-West
26 Ginnheim 2.73 16.444 4.024 24.5 09 – Mitte-Nord
27 Dornbusch 2.38 18.511 3.482 18.8 09 – Mitte-Nord
28 Eschersheim 3.34 14.808 2.657 17.9 09 – Mitte-Nord
29 Eckenheim 2.23 14.277 3.674 25.7 10 – Nord-Ost
30 Preungesheim 3.74 13.568 3.442 25.4 10 – Nord-Ost
31 Bonames 1.24 6.362 1.288 20.2 10 – Nord-Ost
32 Berkersheim 3.18 3.400 592 17.4 10 – Nord-Ost
33 Riederwald 1.04 4.911 1.142 23.3 11 – Ost
34 Seckbach 8.04 10.194 1.969 19.3 11 – Ost
35 Fechenheim 7.18 16.061 5.635 35.1 11 – Ost
36 Höchst 4.73 13.888 5.279 38.0 06 – West
37 Nied 3.82 17.829 5.224 29.3 06 – West
38 Sindlingen 3.98 9.032 2.076 23.0 06 – West
39 Zeilsheim 5.47 11.984 2.555 21.3 06 – West
40 Unterliederbach 5.85 14.350 3.511 24.5 06 – West
41 Sossenheim 5.97 15.853 4.235 26.7 06 – West
42 Nieder-Erlenbach 8.34 4.629 496 10.7 13 – Nieder-Erlenbach
43 Kalbach-Riedberg 6.90 8.482 1.279 15.1 12 – Kalbach-Riedberg
44 Harheim 5.02 4.294 446 10.4 14 – Harheim
45 Nieder-Eschbach 6.35 11.499 1.978 17.2 15 – Nieder-Eschbach
46 Bergen-Enkheim 12.54 17.954 2.764 15.4 16 – Bergen-Enkheim
47 Frankfurter Berg 2.16 7.149 1.715 24.0 10 – Nord-Ost
Frankfurt am Main 248.33 679.571 165.418 24.3

Immigration/Foreign Nationals Edit

According to data from the city register of residents, 51.2% of the population had a migration background as of 2015, which means that a person or at least one or both of their parents was born with foreign citizenship. For the first time, a majority of the city residents had an at least part non-German background. [34] Moreover, three of four children in the city under the age of six had immigrant backgrounds. [35] and 27.7% of residents had a foreign citizenship. [36]

According to statistics, 46.7% of immigrants in Frankfurt come from other countries in the EU 24.5% come from European countries that are not part of the EU 15.7% come from Asia (including Western Asia and South Asia) 7.3% come from Africa 3.4% come from North America (including the Caribbean and Central America) 0.2% come from Australia and Zealandia 2.3% come from South America and 1.1% come from Pacific island nations. Because of this the city is often considered to be a multicultural city, and has been compared to New York City, London and Toronto.

Religion Edit

Frankfurt was historically a Protestant-dominated city. However, during the 19th century, an increasing number of Catholics moved there. The Jewish community has a history dating back to medieval times and has always ranked among the largest in Germany. Two synagogues operate there. Due to the growing immigration of people from Muslim countries beginning in the 1960s, Frankfurt has a large Muslim community. The Ahmadiyya Noor Mosque, constructed in 1959, is the city's largest mosque and the third-largest in Germany. [37]

As of 2013 [update] , the largest Christian denominations were Catholicism (22.7% of the population) and Protestantism, especially Lutheranism (19.4%). [38] Estimations put the share of Muslim inhabitants at approximately 12% (2006). [39] According to calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin, the number of Muslim migrants in Frankfurt amounted to about 84,000 in 2011, making up 12.6 percent of the population. [40] A large part of them was from Turkey and Morocco. Over 7,000 inhabitants were affiliated with the Jewish community, amounting to approximately 1% of the population. [41]

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