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30 November 1940
Japan officially recognises their puppet Chinese government at Nanking
4,588 civilians killed and 6,202 injured during November
Today in History: November 30
The British sign a preliminary agreement in Paris, recognizing American independence.
Mexico declares war on France.
The British Parliament sends to Queen Victoria an ultimatum for the United States, demanding the release of two Confederate diplomats who were seized on the British ship Trent.
The Union wins the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee.
Oscar Wilde dies in a Paris hotel room after saying of the room's wallpaper: "One of us had to go."
The French government denounces British actions in South Africa, declaring sympathy for the Boers.
President Theodore Roosevelt publicly denounces segregation of Japanese schoolchildren in San Francisco.
Women cast votes for the first time in French legislative elections.
Non-belief in Nazism is proclaimed grounds for divorce in Germany.
Russian forces take Danzig in Poland and invade Austria.
The Soviet Union complete the division of Berlin, installing the government in the Soviet sector.
President Truman declares that the United States will use the A-bomb to get peace in Korea.
The United States offers emergency oil to Europe to counter the Arab ban.
The Soviet Union vetoes a UN seat for Kuwait, pleasing Iraq.
Pioneer II sends photos back to NASA as it nears Jupiter.
India and Pakistan decide to end a 10-year trade ban.
Pope John Paul II becomes the first pope in 1,000 years to attend an Orthodox mass.
Representatives of the US and USSR meet in Geneva, Switzerland, to begin negotiations on reducing the number of intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe.
Thriller, Michael Jackson's second solo album, released the album, produced by Quincy Jones, became the best-selling album in history.
US President Bill Clinton signs the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (better known as the Brady Bill) into law.
MS Achille Lauro, a ship with long history of problems including a 1985 terrorist hijacking, catches fire off the coast of Somalia.
Operation Desert Storm officially comes to an end.
Exxon and Mobil oil companies agree to a $73.7 billion merge, creating the world's largest company, Exxon-Mobil.
On the game show Jeopardy! contestant Ken Jennings loses after 74 consecutive victories. It is the longest winning streak in game-show history, earning him a total of over $3 million.
John Sentamu becomes Archbishop of York, making him the Church of England's first black archbishop.
History of Hollywood Madams Is Long, Lurid
As long as there has been a Hollywood, there has been a Hollywood madam.
And if parts of the industry trembled over talk that Heidi Fleiss, the most recent madam to the stars, had a “black book” filled with the names of celebrity customers, whole studios shook when some of her predecessors threatened to describe the sexual proclivities and eccentricities of actors and politicians.
Those threats were taken seriously because, unlike Fleiss, her predecessors usually were even cozier with the cops than they were with their clients.
In fact, during the movies’ so-called “golden age” of the 1920s and 1930s, the madam of the moment usually could count on the cops she paid off to give her enough “pre-raid” warning to clear out any big-name customers. The renowned Lee Francis always had French champagne chilled and dishes of Russian caviar waiting for the vice squad when it arrived. After going through the motions--and finding no one to arrest--the officers would sit down and enjoy her hospitality.
But all good things must come to an end, and Francis eventually spent 30 days in jail on a morals charge, leaving her market niche open for Ann Forrester, soon dubbed the “Black Widow” by the police.
By the late 1930s, the “Black Widow’s” lavish prostitution business was raking in $5,000 weekly while she set Hollywood atwitter with talk of files containing the identities of male customers. But Forrester, too, was eventually convicted of pandering and went to jail. At her trial, the famous reform mayor, Fletcher Bowron, unsuccessfully pleaded for a lenient sentence because “her information was of great value in determining the identity of those Police Department members whose honesty was questionable.”
In 1940, while the “Black Widow” sat in jail, her protege, Brenda Allen, began spinning her own web.
For the next decade, Allen--a redheaded “party girl"--reigned as the bawdy empress of L.A. vice, serving millionaires and movie stars alike. She delighted in boasting that she had never spent a day in jail. As it later emerged, that was because she had improved on her predecessors’ notion of safe sex by taking a Hollywood vice cop, LAPD Sgt. Elmer V. Jackson, as her lover and business partner.
But in 1948, Allen too was indicted after an LAPD telephone tap recorded an all-too-chummy business chat between the bordello queen and her badge-bearing partner. Her arrest shook Hollywood, which instantly began to buzz with rumors about a little black box containing the names of 250 celebrity clients, including entertainment industry figures, politicians and gangsters.
But the elaborate vice sting embarrassed the Los Angeles Police Department even more.
The key players in Allen’s operation included not only Jackson, but other vice cops paid to protect prostitutes. The scandal forced Police Chief Clemence B. Horrall into early retirement. His place was temporarily taken by former Marine Corps Gen. William A. Worton, who eventually was replaced by the hard-nosed William H. Parker, who came in with City Hall’s mandate to clean things up.
During the scandal, it also emerged that Allen’s real name was Marie Mitchell. She had made her professional debut as a teenage streetwalker on a seedy stretch of West 6th Street between Union Avenue and Alvarado Street. It wasn’t exactly Schwab’s, but she soon was “discovered” by Forrester, who took her off the street corner and into a pricey brothel. When the “Black Widow” ran afoul of the law, the young Mitchell testified that her former boss had lured her into this “shameful business.” When Forrester went to jail, Mitchell--now Brenda Allen--took over the business.
Buoyed by the power of her shrewd manager and boyfriend, the vice cop Jackson, Allen “grew the business.” Soon, 114 party girls were working for her, taking in $9,000 a day from customers who paid from $20 to $100 for the services of one of “Brenda’s girls.” Allen took 50% off the top and a third went to pay cops, doctors, lawyers and bail bondsmen.
Allen rented large, ornate party houses above the Sunset Strip on streets such as Cory Avenue, Harold Way and Miller Place. After each one of her 19 arrests, she just packed things up and moved to another house on the next street.
On the night of Feb. 21, 1947, Allen and Jackson were necking in his car in front of her apartment at 9th and Fedora streets when a robber stuck a machine gun through Jackson’s open window. Jackson, pretending to reach for his wallet, pulled out a pistol instead and killed Roy “Peewee” Lewis, the stickup man, while the getaway driver sped off. Jackson told the police that Allen was a Police Department stenographer.
A year later, a reporter with the Daily News discovered that the woman with Jackson that night was actually Allen.
Subsequent headlines led to a grand jury investigation. Jackson denied any wrongdoing, but Allen testified that she paid him $50 a week for each woman she employed, as well as other sums to other vice squad members.
In 1951, Allen’s successor--Barrie Benson, 29--conducted business in a 13-room Moorish castle with red and purple rooms on Schuyler Road north of the Sunset Strip. It was a favorite hangout for gangland figures, including Sam Farkas, bodyguard to mobster Mickey Cohen. Benson’s business was the first to go under when Police Chief Parker took command.
An underground celebrity in the 1970s and 1980s, the “Beverly Hills Madam,” Elizabeth Adams, took the business international, dispatching a bevy of young and beautiful women to Saudi princes and millionaire businessmen. Her average cash flow grew to $100,000 a month. Acting as a police informant by passing along “pillow talk,” Adams managed to keep the cops at bay for 20 years.
The Decades That Invented the Future, Part 4: 1931-1940
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Since 2007, Wired.com’s This Day In Tech blog has reflected on important and entertaining events in the history of science and innovation, pursuing them chronologically for each day of the year. Hundreds of these essays have now been collected into a trivia book, Mad Science: Einstein’s Fridge, Dewar’s Flask, Mach’s Speed and 362 Other Inventions and Discoveries that Made Our World. It goes on sale Nov. 13, and is available for pre-order today at Amazon, Barnes and Noble and other online book stores.
WIRED is where tomorrow is realized. It is the essential source of information and ideas that make sense of a world in constant transformation. The WIRED conversation illuminates how technology is changing every aspect of our lives—from culture to business, science to design. The breakthroughs and innovations that we uncover lead to new ways of thinking, new connections, and new industries.
Can Kids Climb the High Peaks?
Yes! Many children have begun climbing the High Peaks at an early age, and recently a child under 5 completed them all. It can be done! Only you will know your child’s abilities, but if you want to start on some lower mountains and still get a taste for the High Peaks, here are a few options:
Mount Jo & Heart LakeThe Trail to Mount Jo
Known as the “Finest Square Mile”, The ADK Loj at Heart Lake is a great place to introduce children to the High Peaks. Make the short climb up Mount Jo to enjoy stunning views of the High Peaks, then relax with a swim in Heart Lake. Great for kids of all ages.
Excellent starter hike for young ones. Only .6 miles to the summit and offers a great variety of views. Get them hooked early with this short journey, and still have energy left to explore the local towns.
An easy two-mile hike to Marcy Dam will offer a great place to eat your lunch and take in views of the surrounding mountains. Make it a fun overnight and stay in one of the shelters. Great place for beginning backpacking. Just be prepared, the Eastern High Peaks have a lot of bear activity, and Marcy Dam is particularly popular with Ursus Americanus.
Whiteface Mountain Toll Road (by car)
My personal credo is to never drive up a mountain until I’ve climbed it, but if you’re short on time, or just want a fun family experience- consider the toll road up Whiteface Mountain. At 4,867 feet, it is the 5 th highest peak and with no other High Peak nearby, it has unparalleled views.
There is a castle-like restaurant just below the peak, and the choice of either a scrambling stairway or a tunnel and elevator to the actual summit. Yes- Whiteface is, in fact, an accessible high peak. A great option for family members with motor ability challenges.
Once atop the summit, there is an enclosed structure with a weather station, and a fun scramble out onto the open, rocky summit. Eat lunch in the restaurant, and reward the kiddos with a sticker or patch to remind them of their first foray into the High Peaks.
For More Information – Adirondack Mountain Club (ADK) – www.adk.org
Founded in 1922, the Adirondack Mountain Club (ADK) “is dedicated to the conservation, preservation, and responsible recreational use of the New York State Forest Preserve and other parks, wildlands, and waters vital to our members and chapters.” They are a great resource for information, publications, and for finding group outings in the High Peaks.
I learned much of what I know about hiking the Adirondacks by joining their group hikes. Check out their extensive activities list for year-round hikes and workshops, many of which are hosted at the Adirondack Loj at Heart Lake.
Kids Exploring Heart Lake
The “Finest Square Mile” features a fabulous lodge and campground in the heart of the High Peaks. Great place to launch your first (or 100 th ) ADK adventure.
ADK 46ers – www.adk46er.org
Established in 1936, and formed to bring together all those who have climbed the 46 High Peaks, the Forty-Sixers have grown to include more than 11,000 members from around the world. Earning the coveted 46er patch is a fun motivator and a great accomplishment for you and your family.
What to Read
Adirondack Trails High Peaks Region, Tony Goodwin, and Neal Burdick, Editors, ADK publication, 2013. This is your bible for High Peaks trails and includes a detailed topographic map.
Adirondack Peak Experiences, Compiled and edited by Carol Stone White. Great collection of unique, fun, and quirky stories from the Adirondack region.
Heaven Up-h’isted-ness: The History of the Adirondack Forty-Sixers and the High Peaks of the Adirondacks by The Adirondack Forty-Sixers, Inc., 2011. The essential companion for the High Peaks.
The Adirondacks: A History of America’s First Wilderness, By Paul Schneider, 1998. A nice introduction to Adirondack history and lore told through the writer’s many first-hand experiences.
50 Hikes in the Adirondacks: Short Walks, Day Trips, and Backpacks Throughout the Park, 4 th ed., By Barbara McMartin, 2003. This book started it all for my brother and me. Excellent book for exploring the variety of trails in the Adirondacks.
Adirondack Alpine Summits: An Ecological Field Guide, By Nancy G. Slack and Allison W. Bell, ADK publication, 2007. An excellent guide to safely exploring these fragile resources. The book is light and fits nicely in your pack.
Wherever your ADK adventures take you- remember to be safe, educate yourself on the route and the weather, hike within your limits, and make great memories. And as we say in the ADK 46ers, I wish you:
30 November 1940 - History
During the 1960s, one age group of Americans loomed larger than any other: the youth. Their skepticism of corporate and bureaucratic authority, their strong emotional identification with the underprivileged, and their intense desire for stimulation and instant gratification shaped the nation's politics, dress, music, and film.
Unlike their parents, who had grown-up amid the hardships of the depression and the patriotic sacrifices of World War II, young people of the 1960s grew up during a period of rapid economic growth. Feeling a deep sense of economic security, they sought personal fulfillment and tended to dismiss their parents generation's success-oriented lives. "Never trust anyone over 30," went a popular saying.
Never before had young people been so numerous or so well-educated. During the 1960s, there was a sudden explosion in the number of teenagers and young adults. As a result of the depressed birthrates during the 1930s and the post-war baby boom, the number of young people aged 14 to 25 jumped 40 percent in a decade (constituting 20 percent of the nation's population). The nation's growing number of young people received far more schooling than their parents. Over 75 percent graduated high school, and nearly 40 percent went on to higher education.
At no earlier time in American history had the gulf between the generations seemed so wide. Blue jeans, long hair, psychedelic drugs, casual sex, hippie communes, campus demonstrations, and rock music all became symbols of the distance separating youth from the world of conventional adulthood.
History of Trains
History of the modern trains spans the range of last two hundred years of modern human civilization, who in that time used this incredible discovery to drastically change industry, human expansion, and the way we travel on daily basis.
From the first time steam train rolled over the railways of industrial England in early 1800s to the modern times when bullet trains carry thousands of passengers with incredible speeds and freight train carry substantial amount of worlds goods, trains enabled us to develop our civilization with unexpected consequences that nobody expected. Distant lands become almost instantly reachable (3000 miles journey from New York to California was cut down from one or two months to few days!), industrial manufacture could be powered with infinite amount of raw materials and outgoing transport of finished goods, and sudden fast travel (far before first airplanes were discovered) caused the need of implementing standardized time zones across entire world.
Today, trains are used in variety of ways – from small city trams, subway electric trains, distance trains (equipped with dining cars and sleeping quarters for longer journeys), freight trains, to high-speed bullet trains that can reach speeds of 300-500 kilometers per hour. However, their history started with much simpler and slower designs. Even before steam engines arrived, ancient civilizations of Greece and Egypt and industrial Europe (1600s -1800s) used horses as primary sources of driving simple train cars. With purposefully built train tracks that enabled journey in only two directions, horses or bulls needed to waste minimal amount of force while pulling coal, iron and other goods.
Arrival of first non-condensing pressurized steam engines in first few years of 19th century enabled engineers to build new kind of railway system and train cars – trains that were built to carry much more materials than ever before.
30 November 1940 - History
1716 - The first lion to be exhibited in America went on display in Boston, MA.
1731 - English poet William Cowper was born. He is best known for "The Poplar Trees" and "The Task."
1789 - U.S. President Washington set aside this day to observe the adoption of the Constitution of the United States.
1825 - The first college social fraternity, Kappa Alpha, was formed at Union College in Schenectady, NY.
1832 - Public streetcar service began in New York City.
1867 - J.B. Sutherland patented the refrigerated railroad car.
1917 - The National Hockey League (NHL) was officially formed in Montreal, Canada.
1922 - In Egypt, Howard Carter peered into the tomb of King Tutankhamen.
1940 - The Nazis forced 500,000 Jews of Warsaw, Poland to live within a walled ghetto.
1941 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day. In 1939 Roosevelt had signed a bill that changed the celebration of Thanksgiving to the third Thursday of November.
1942 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered nationwide gasoline rationing to begin December 1.
1942 - The motion picture "Casablanca" had its world premiere at the Hollywood Theater in New York City.
1943 - The HMS Rohna became the first ship to be sunk by a guided missile. The German missile attack led to the death of 1,015 U.S. troops.
1949 - India's Constituent Assembly adopted the country's constitution The country became republic within the British Commonwealth two months later.
1950 - China entered the Korean conflict forcing UN forces to retreat.
1958 - Maurice Richard (Montreal Canadiens) scored his 600th NHL career goal.
1965 - France became the third country to enter space when it launched its first satellite the Diamant-A .
1973 - Rose Mary Woods, told a federal court that she was responsible for the 18-1/2 minute gap in a key Watergate tape. Woods was U.S. President Nixon's personal secretary.
1975 - Lynette"Squeaky" Fromme was found guilty by a federal jury in Sacramento, CA, for trying to assassinate U.S. President Ford on September 5.
1979 - The International Olympic Committee voted to re-admit China after a 21-year absence.
1983 - A Brinks Mat Ltd. vault at London's Heathrow Airport was robbed by gunmen. The men made off with 6,800 gold bars worth nearly $40 million. Only a fraction of the gold has ever been recovered and only two men were convicted in the heist.
1985 - The rights to Richard Nixon's autobiography were acquired by Random House for $3,000,000.
1986 - U.S. President Reagan appointed a commission headed by former Sen. John Tower to investigate his National Security Council staff after the Iran-Contra affair.
1988 - The U.S. denied an entry visa to PLO chairman Yasser Arafat, who was seeking permission to travel to New York to address the U.N. General Assembly.
1990 - Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz at the Kremlin to demand that Iraq withdraw from Kuwait.
1990 - Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. agreed to acquire MCA Inc. for $6.6 billion.
1992 - The British government announced that Queen Elizabeth II had volunteered to start paying taxes on her personal income. She also took her children off the public payroll.
1995 - Two men set fire to a subway token booth in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. The clerk inside was fatally burned.
1997 - The U.S. and North Korea held high-level discussions at the State Department for the first time.
1998 - British Prime Minister Tony Blair made a speech to the Irish Parliament. It was a first time event for a British Prime Minister.
1998 - Hulk Hogan announced that he was retiring from pro wrestling and would run for president in 2000.
2003 - The U.N. atomic agency adopted a resolution that censured Iran for past nuclear cover-ups and warning that it would be policed to put to rest suspicions that the country had a weapons agenda.
2011 - The Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity spacecraft launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL. The Mars rover Curiosity landed on the floor of Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
Above, we've graphed the homeownership rate in the United States. However, this is ostensibly an article about mortgage innovations. That in mind, let's look at the proportion of homes financed with a mortgage.
|Date||Owner Occupied Homes with Mortgage|
29 Classic Movies To Watch In Honor Of Black History Month
It’s Black History Month, which means there’s really no better time to see a great film that captures the diverse narratives of black people. In theaters, movies like “Hidden Figures,” “Loving,” and “Fences” are telling little-known stories that focus on black lives.
But if you’re in the mood to watch something compelling and enlightening about the black experience right now, below are 29 feature films and documentaries to check out. Spanning everything from a portrait of Barack Obama in his youth to the rise of the Black Power movement in the 1960s, these films are sure broaden your black film vocabulary:
This moving 2011 documentary tells the real story of Richard and Mildred Loving, the interracial couple who went on a legal crusade in 1958 to secure the right to be married to each other. Their legal battle resulted in the landmark Supreme Court ruling in Loving v. Virginia, which made interracial marriage legal across the United States.
Common, Nas, Ice-T, KRS-One and Kanye West are amongs some of the hip-hop heavy weights who appear in this documentary that chronicles not only the history, but the underrated artistry behind rap music.
Ryan Coogler's powerful directorial debut tells the true story of the last day in the life of Oscar Grant. Grant, played by Michael B. Jordan, was a 22-year-old black man who was shot and killed by Bay Area police in 2008 in a shocking display of brutality that went viral on YouTube.
In her decades-spanning career, Miriam Makeba became not only the most popular African singer in the world, but also the voice of the South African battle against apartheid. This comprehensive biographical documentary chronicles her humble beginnings, her artistry, her activism, and her subsequent exile from South Africa.
Shot entirely on an iPhone 5s, "Tangerine" is one of the most important films exploring the black experience to come out in the last 20 years. The film focuses on two black trans woman sex workers as they navigate their complicated friendship and the everyday realities of survival.
This stellar documentary consists of rare footage of people who were on the ground and active during the height of the Black Power movement. Based entirely from archives from Swedish filmmakers in the '60s and '70s, the film offers a unique glimpse into a seminal era in black history.
"Barry" is one of two drama films (of what will surely be many) that take a glimpse at the life of a younger Barack Obama, the man who would one day become the first black president of the United States. Set during his days at Columbia, before he met Michelle Obama, the film is an exploration of young Barry coming to terms with his race and identity.
No black history movie list would be complete without Ava DuVernay's most recent film, "13th." The captivating documentary outlines how slavery continued in America after the Civil War in the form of criminal punishment, eventually leading us to the crisis of mass incarceration and a fault criminal justice system today.
While he'll always be remembered for the stellar "Do the Right Thing," "Malcolm X" is in many ways Spike Lee's masterpiece. The sweeping tale featuring an iconic performance by Denzel Washington offered an alternative, comprehensive and deeply compelling narrative of the life of the civil rights hero.
"How can you be an artist and not reflect the times?"
This is just one of the many nuggets of greatness from this look at the life of the complex and brilliant Nina Simone. Through the use of archival footage and interviews with the people who knew her best, the film seeks to unravel the genius that made Simone so unique, and that ultimately destroyed her.
Ava DuVernay made history with "Selma" in 2014, becoming the first black woman to have her film nominated for "Best Picture" at the Oscars. "Selma" is a portrait piece of Dr. Martin Luther King as he led the march from Selma to Montgomery for voting rights.
From British director Amma Asante, this period drama tells the real-life story of Dido Elizabeth Belle, a mixed-race woman and the daughter of a slave who grew up in the British aristocracy during the height of the slave trade.
Free black men were conscripted to fight in the Union Army during the Civil War, but as this 1989 period drama shows, not even their willingness to sacrifice their lives for their country was enough to shield them from racism and segregation. Denzel Washington stars in the role that would nab him his first Oscar.
Everything about this film is simply iconic. Angela Bassett delivers what is possibly her greatest on-screen performance ever in this biography of Tina Turner.
Kasi Lemmons hit it straight out of the park with her 1997 directorial debut starring Lynn Whitfield, Samuel L. Jackson, and a young Jurnee Smollet. It's a Southern Gothic drama about a black family in 1950s New Orleans that is shaken to its core when hidden secrets finally come to light.
Starring Ruby Dee and Sidney Poitier, this 1961 adaptation of Lorraine Hansberry's iconic play is the definitive screen version. It's a film about one black family's quest for the American Dream -- and what happens when that dream is deferred.
This classic 1991 documentary gives a vivid and dynamic (though cursory) glimpse into the gay ballroom culture of the '80s and '90s that was dominated by young queer black and Latino people who used the scene as not only a form of escape, but also survival.
Though flawed, this 2009 Disney animated film features not only some beautiful artwork and great original songs -- it also has the first African-American Disney princess ever, voiced by the talented Anika Noni-Rose.
There are so few coming-of-age movies about young black girls, which makes Spike Lee's "Crooklyn" such a vital part of black movie history. Starring Zelda Harris and Alfre Woodard, the film is set in the 1970s and follows the young tomboy Troy (Harris) during her both idyllic and difficult childhood in Brooklyn.
Directed by legendary Senegalese filmmaker Ousmane Sembene, "Black Girl" (or "Le Noire De. ") is a seminal moment in black cinema. Released in 1966, it tells the story of Diouana, a young Senagalese woman who travels to Europe with the hope of a better life -- only to be forced into full-time servitude by her rich French employers.
This 2012 documentary from Spike Lee presented the first truly in-depth look into the human rights disaster that developed in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. The mismanagement and disregard of government officials is juxtaposed in stark contrast with the devastation endured by the mostly poor, black residents of New Orleans.
Before there was Spike Lee there was Oscar Micheaux, a prolific black director who in the 1920s made a series of seminal "race films" starring all black casts. Tackling the daily horrors of Jim Crow including lynching and rape, "Within Our Gates" is perhaps Micheaux's most important movie. It's a striking cinematic answer to the racist imagery of D.W Griffith's wildly popular "Birth of a Nation" that every film buff should see.
"The Wiz" is the feel-good screen adaptation of Charie Smalls 1975 Broadway musical. Starring Diana Ross and a young Michael Jackson, this movie serves up a "black" version of the classic Wizard of Oz story.
Dorothy Dandridge became the first black woman to be nominated for a Best Actress award at the 1954 Oscars for her role in this epic musical, based on Bizet's tragic opera "Carmen."
Based on a novel by Alice Walker, starring Oprah Winfrey and Whoopi Goldberg, there's not much more to say than: This. Is. A. Classic.
What better way to celebrate black history and the life of music legend Prince than by watching "Purple Rain"? The musical drama features some of Prince's most iconic songs -- and outfits.
Representation in Hollywood has been a hot topic for the past several years, but decades ago in 1987, writer-director Robert Townsend made "Hollywood Shuffle." The movie is a hilarious, often poignant satire of life as a black actor in Hollywood, from losing out roles for not being "black enough," to being forced to play the same stereotypical roles over and over.