We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
A pectoral cross or pectorale (from the Latin pectoralis, "of the chest") is a cross that is worn on the chest, usually suspended from the neck by a cord or chain. In ancient and medieval times pectoral crosses were worn by both clergy and laity, but by the end of the Middle Ages the pectoral cross came to be a special indicator of position worn by bishops. In the Roman Catholic Church, the wearing of a pectoral cross remains restricted to popes, cardinals, bishops and abbots. In Eastern Orthodox Church Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches that follow a Slavic Tradition, priests also wear pectoral crosses, while deacons and minor orders do not.  The modern pectoral cross is relatively large, and is different from the small crosses worn on necklaces by many Christians. Most pectoral crosses are made of precious metals (platinum, gold or silver) and some contain precious or semi-precious gems. Some contain a corpus like a crucifix while others use stylized designs and religious symbols.
In many Christian denominations, the pectoral cross symbolizes that the person wearing it is a member of the clergy,  or that the wearer is a member of the higher or senior clergy. However, in many Western churches there are an increasing number of laypeople who choose to wear some form of a cross around their neck.
While many Christians, both clergy and laity, wear crosses, the pectoral cross is distinguished by both its size (up to six inches across) and that it is worn in the center of the chest below the heart (as opposed to just below the collarbones).
Throughout the centuries, many pectoral crosses have been made in the form of reliquaries which contain alleged fragments of the True Cross or relics of saints. Some such reliquary pectorals are hinged so that they open to reveal the relic, or the relic may be visible from the front through glass.
Did pirates really bury their treasure?
One early example concerns the English privateer Francis Drake. After a 1573 raid on a Spanish mule train, he and his men interred several tons of gold and silver along the Panamanian coast to prevent it from being recaptured. Drake left guards at the site, however, and quickly retrieved the booty after rendezvousing with his ships.
Another sea rogue who was not so fortunate was Captain William Kidd, the notorious privateer-turned-pirate who became a wanted man for plundering shipping in the Indian Ocean. In 1699, Kidd dropped anchor near New York and buried the modern equivalent of millions of dollars in gold and jewels on tiny Gardiners Island. He was soon arrested in Boston while trying to clear his name, and it wasn’t long before the authorities tracked down and confiscated most of the ill-gotten treasure. Kidd, meanwhile, was transported to London and executed by hanging.
Like many other pirate myths, the concept of buried plunder was popularized by author Robert Louis Stevenson’s 1883 novel “Treasure Island,” which involves a hunt for a cache of gold hidden by a salty ship captain. Yet according to maritime historian David Cordingly, the buccaneers of old were rarely so frugal. Rather than turning a hole in the ground into a savings account, they were more likely to squander their spoils on women, rum and gambling as soon as they returned to port.
Even though real life pirate hoards were rare, legends still abound about long lost riches squirreled away on deserted islands. One of the most famous tales concerns the so-called “Treasure of Lima,” a haul of Spanish gold, silver and jewels supposedly stolen by a British ship captain named William Thompson and buried on Costa Rica’s Cocos Island around 1820. The loot is rumored to be worth around $200 million, but despite decades of searching, would-be treasure hunters have yet to track it down.
2. The Amber Room
The Amber Room replica in Catherine Palace, circa 2003.
Designed in the early 18th century, the Amber Room was an ornate set of floor-to-ceiling wall panels decorated with fossilized amber, semi-precious stones and backed with gold leaf. In 1716, Prussian King Frederick William I gifted the panels, designed to cover 180 square feet, to Russian Emperor Peter the Great as a symbol of Prussia and Russia’s alliance against Sweden.
When the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa in 1941, the Amber Room occupied a chamber at the Catherine Palace in the Russian town of Pushkin. Believing the room to be German art that rightfully belonged to them, the Nazis disassembled the room and shipped it to a castle museum in Königsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad, Russia). In 1944, allied bombing destroyed the city, the castle museum and likely the Amber Room as well𠅋ut that hasn’t stopped treasure hunters from trying to locate the lost room.
Researchers Say King Tut’s Dagger Was Made From a Meteorite
In 1925, three years after discovering Tutankhamen’s largely intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor (ancient Thebes), the English archaeologist Howard Carter found two daggers hidden in the folds of material wrapped around the pharaoh’s mummified body. In the wrappings on Tut’s right thigh, he found an iron blade with a decorated gold handle ending in a round crystal knob, encased in an ornate gold sheath decorated in a pattern of feathers, lilies and the head of a jackal. The second blade, found near Tut’s abdomen, was of gold.
The iron dagger instantly attracted attention from archaeologists. Iron was still relatively rare in the Bronze Age, and was considered even more valuable than gold. Though ancient Egypt was rich in mineral resources𠅌opper, bronze and gold were in use since the fourth millennium B.C.—the earliest references to iron smelting in the Nile Valley date to much later, during the first millennium B.C. Most archaeologists agree that the handful of iron objects that have been found from Egypt’s Old Kingdom (third millennium B.C.) were probably produced from meteoric metal, a substance the Egyptians of Tut’s era reverently called “iron from the sky.”
Earlier examinations of the iron dagger found in King Tut’s tomb in the 1970s and 1990s probed the possibility that its blade came from a meteorite. Their findings were inconclusive or controversial, at best. Recently, however, a team of Italian and Egyptian researchers took advantage of new technology—specifically a technique called portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—to take another look. According to their findings, published this week in the journal Meteorites and Planetary Science, the blade’s composition of iron, nickel and cobalt “strongly suggests an extraterrestrial origin.” What’s more, it is nearly identical to the composition of a meteor found in the seaport city of Marsa Matruh, 150 miles west of Alexandria.
California couple finds $10 million in buried treasure while walking dog
LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - A trove of rare Gold Rush-era coins unearthed in California last year by a couple as they walked their dog may be the greatest buried treasure ever found in the United States, worth more than $10 million, a currency firm representing the pair said on Tuesday.
The 1,400 gold pieces, dating to the mid- to late 1800s and still in nearly mint condition, were discovered buried in eight decaying metal cans on the couple’s land last April, said coin expert David McCarthy of currency firm Kagin’s.
“We’ve seen shipwrecks in the past where thousands of gold coins were found in very high grade, but a buried treasure of this sort is unheard of,” McCarthy said. “I’ve never seen this face value in North America and you never see coins in the condition we have here.”
Kagin’s has declined to identify the couple, who according to the firm want to remain anonymous for fear treasure hunters will descend on their property in Northern California’s so-called Gold Country, named after the state’s 1849 Gold Rush.
The couple had been walking their dog when they came across a rusty metal can sticking out of the ground and dug it out. After finding gold coins inside they searched further and found the rest of the cache.
Also unclear is who hid the gold pieces, which were minted between 1847 and 1894, in a variety of 19th-century metal cans on land that eventually became part of the couple’s yard.
McCarthy said it was curious that the containers were discovered scattered across one section of the property at different depths, suggesting that they were not all put there at the same time.
The $20 gold pieces appeared to have been new when they went into the ground and had suffered little damage from being in the soil for so long.
McCarthy said the couple wisely refrained from cleaning the coins themselves and brought a sampling of them to him in little baggies, still covered in soil.
“I picked up one of bags. It was an 1890 $20 gold piece. It was covered in dirt,” McCarthy said, recalling when he first saw one of the gold pieces. “An area of the coin was exposed and the metal looked as if it had just been struck yesterday.”
His company took what became known as the “Saddle Ridge Hoard” to an independent coin-grading service, which found that it was comprised of nearly 1,400 $20 gold pieces, 50 $10 gold pieces and four $5 gold pieces. One of the coins, a so-called 1866-S No Motto Double Eagle, is said to be valued at $1 million on its own.
“The Saddle Ridge Hoard discovery is one of the most amazing numismatic stories I’ve ever heard,” said Don Willis, president of Professional Coin Grading Service. “This will be regarded as one of the best stories in the history of our hobby.”
McCarthy said Kagin’s will sell most of the coins on Amazon for the couple and that a sampling will be displayed at the upcoming American Numismatic Association show in Atlanta later this month.
The Jewish Badge during the Nazi Era
During the Nazi era, German authorities reintroduced the Jewish badge as a key element in their plan to persecute and eventually to destroy the Jewish population of Europe. They used the badge not only to stigmatize and humiliate Jews but also to segregate them and to watch and control their movements. The badge also facilitated deportation.
Nazi propaganda minister Josef Goebbels was the first to suggest a "general distinguishing mark" for German Jews in a memorandum in May 1938. Security Police chief Reinhard Heydrich reiterated the idea at a November 12, 1938, meeting convened by Herman Göring following Kristallnacht. In both cases no immediate action was taken.
Diagnosing Latent TB Infection & Disease
Most persons, but not everyone, with TB disease have one or more symptoms of TB disease. All persons with either symptoms or a positive TB test result should be evaluated for TB disease. If a person has symptoms, but a negative TB test result, they should still be evaluated for TB disease.
Diagnosis of Latent TB Infection
A diagnosis of latent TB infection is made if a person has a positive TB test result and a medical evaluation does not indicate TB disease. The decision about treatment for latent TB infection will be based on a person&rsquos chances of developing TB disease by considering their risk factors.
Diagnosis of TB Disease
TB disease is diagnosed by medical history, physical examination, chest x-ray, and other laboratory tests. TB disease is treated by taking several drugs as recommended by a health care provider.
TB disease should be suspected in persons who have any of the following symptoms:
- Unexplained weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- Night sweats
If TB disease is in the lungs (pulmonary), symptoms may include:
If TB disease is in other parts of the body (extrapulmonary), symptoms will depend on the area affected.
People suspected of having TB disease should be referred for a complete medical evaluation, which will include the following:
1. Medical History
Clinicians should ask about the patient&rsquos history of TB exposure, infection, or disease. It is also important to consider demographic factors (e.g., country of origin, age, ethnic or racial group, occupation) that may increase the patient&rsquos risk for exposure to TB or to drug-resistant TB. Also, clinicians should determine whether the patient has medical conditions, such as HIV infection or diabetes, that increase the risk of latent TB infection progressing to TB disease.
2. Physical Examination
A physical exam can provide valuable information about the patient&rsquos overall condition and other factors that may affect how TB is treated, such as HIV infection or other illnesses.
3. Test for TB Infection
The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or the TB blood test can be used to test for M. tuberculosis infection. Additional tests are required to confirm TB disease.
4. Chest Radiograph
A posterior-anterior chest radiograph is used to detect chest abnormalities. Lesions may appear anywhere in the lungs and may differ in size, shape, density, and cavitation. These abnormalities may suggest TB, but cannot be used to definitively diagnose TB. However, a chest radiograph may be used to rule out the possibility of pulmonary TB in a person who has had a positive reaction to a TST or TB blood test and no symptoms of disease.
5. Diagnostic Microbiology
The presence of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) on a sputum smear or other specimen often indicates TB disease. Acid-fast microscopy is easy and quick, but it does not confirm a diagnosis of TB because some acid-fast-bacilli are not M. tuberculosis. Therefore, a culture is done on all initial samples to confirm the diagnosis. (However, a positive culture is not always necessary to begin or continue treatment for TB.) A positive culture for M. tuberculosis confirms the diagnosis of TB disease. Culture examinations should be completed on all specimens, regardless of AFB smear results. Laboratories should report positive results on smears and cultures within 24 hours by telephone or fax to the primary health care provider and to the state or local TB control program, as required by law.
6. Drug Resistance
For all patients, the initial M. tuberculosis isolate should be tested for drug resistance. It is crucial to identify drug resistance as early as possible to ensure effective treatment. Drug susceptibility patterns should be repeated for patients who do not respond adequately to treatment or who have positive culture results despite 3 months of therapy. Susceptibility results from laboratories should be promptly reported to the primary health care provider and to the state or local TB control program.
Ask the patient if there is any family history of diseases which may be associated with chest pain (e.g. cardiovascular disease, thromboembolic disease):
- “Do any of your parents or siblings have any heart problems?”
- “Have any of your parents or siblings previously been diagnosed with a blood clot?”
Clarify at what age the disease developed (disease developing at a younger age is more likely to be associated with genetic factors):
- “At what age did your father suffer his first heart attack?”
- “When was your mother diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism?”
If one of the patient’s close relatives are deceased, sensitively determine the age at which they died and the cause of death:
- “I’m really sorry to hear that, do you mind me asking how old your dad was when he died?”
- “Do you remember what medical condition was felt to have caused his death?”
Phoenician-Punic Gold Pectoral - History
The story and meaning of the original Pope Francis Papal Pectoral Cross
Greetings, Brothers and Sisters! From the moment we heard "Habemus Papam!" and laid eyes on the new vicar of Christ we fell in love with Pope Francis- Jorge Bergolio! With the gentle greeting resonating in our hearts, Pope Francis began to teach and show us simplicity, hope, and humility. Everything about Pope Francis is beautifully simple. This flows from his love for the Church and the poor, and his spirit, or rather the Holy Spirit, filling him with this profound gift. Simplicity runs through Pope Francis' veins affected even in the papal pectoral cross he wears around his neck.
Click on the image below to view a four-inch Papal Cross.
Why this Papal Pectoral Cross is Different
For centuries popes, cardinals, and bishops wore the pectoral cross as a sign of authority and prestige among other clergy members. In fact, one of the first popes to wear a papal pectoral cross was Pope Leo III, in the year 811. He was given a gold cross as a gift from Nicephorus, the Patriarch of Constantinople. It soon became customary for the pope to wear a pectoral cross. Since then, the pectoral cross has been adorned with gold jewels and precious stones.
With that being said, we gather that Pope Francis' pectoral cross is definitely different from previous pectoral crosses. You can see that there is no gold on his pectoral cross, nor any precious stones or jewels. Only a simple and humble soul could turn down a solid gold pectoral which is exactly what he did. His excellency chose to keep the same papal pectoral cross he wore for many years as Archbishop and Cardinal of Argentina.
Pope Francis decided to keep his original pectoral cross because it held a special place in his heart. When he held his pectoral cross in his hand it was a reminder to him that he was called by God to be a shepherd to his people especially the poorest of the poor. Those who encountered him while he prayed for them and spoke with them were drawn to the cross and would find comfort and peace upon seeing the pectoral cross.
So, what is the design of Pope Francis Papal Pectoral Cross and where did it come?
The original design of Pope Francis pectoral cross, drawn by Antonio Vedele, who passed away in 1997, was actually made by a small artisan master craftsmen named Guiseppe Albrizzi of Pavia, Italy. Albrizzi states "The cross was made by me, but it was drawn by my teacher, Antonio Veldele, for whom I worked until 1978. I am grateful for everything he taught me, the teacher who created the cross of Pope Francis." (Source: UPA Federimpresa)."
The details of the cross are rooted in the Gospel of Luke. That is, the parable of the good shepherd and the lost sheep. Luke 15: 4-7 says, "What man among you having a hundred sheep and losing one of them would not leave the ninety-nine in the desert and go after the lost one until he finds it?"
In the center is the figure of a man who represents Jesus, the Good Shepherd, who has found one of his sheep and carries it while the other sheep follow closely. At the top of the cross, the dove representing the Holy Spirit descends from God the Father to God the Son, helping those who are lost and in darkness, and bringing them new life! The linear style is intended to be a symbol for a new ecclesiastical era, a poor Church among the poor, as Pope Francis has indicated. The original Pope Francis papal pectoral cross, worn by Pope Fancis, is sterling silver and weighs 80 grams.
The life, legacy and mission of Pope Francis
Pope Francis show us the way of humility and simplicity, but more importantly, how to love God and our neighbor! That's what a good shepherd does he lays his life down for his sheep. Be reminded of a loving pope by wearing your own Pope Francis Papal Pectoral Cross!
We at Ziegler's are excited to offer you the copyrighted, Official Pope Francis Papal Pectoral Cross, created and designed by craftsman Antonio Vedele! The papal Cross of Pope Francis is also known as the Papa Francesco Cross, or Papa Francisco Cross. All the original beauty of the original papal cross is maintained in the replicas we carry. The cross is beautiful, highly detailed, silver oxidized, die cast metal, made in Italy. We choose our vendors with much prudence and it is because of our fantastic relationship with the one and only officially authorized manufacturer of the Pope Francis Papal Cross that we are able to bring to you the Pope Francis Cross. We procure them directly from the factory in Italy, while you enjoy fast shipping and great savings!
Browse through the many Pope Francis Papal Crosses below. A sizing chart of our metal silver-oxidized crosses is provided. Order from our extensive selection of Pope Francis gifts today!
Testing for TB Infection
The COVID-19 vaccine should not be delayed because of testing for TB infection. TB skin tests and TB blood tests are not expected to affect the safety or the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine. Visit Interim Clinical Considerations for Use of COVID-19 Vaccines Currently Authorized in the United States for more information.
There are two types of tests for TB infection: the TB skin test and the TB blood test. A person&rsquos health care provider should choose which TB test to use. Factors in selecting which test to use include the reason for testing, test availability, and cost. Generally, it is not recommended to test a person with both a TB skin test and a TB blood test.
Administering the TB skin test
The TB skin test is also called the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST). A TB skin test requires two visits with a health care provider.
On the first visit the test is placed on the second visit the health care provider reads the test.
- The TB skin test is performed by injecting a small amount of fluid (called tuberculin) into the skin on the lower part of the arm.
- A person given the tuberculin skin test must return within 48 to 72 hours to have a trained health care worker look for a reaction on the arm.
- The result depends on the size of the raised, hard area or swelling.
Reading the result of a TB skin test
Positive skin test: This means the person&rsquos body was infected with TB bacteria. Additional tests are needed to determine if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease.
Negative skin test: This means the person&rsquos body did not react to the test, and that latent TB infection or TB disease is not likely.
There is no problem in repeating a TB skin test. If repeated, the additional test should be placed in a different location on the body (e.g., other arm).
The TB skin test is the preferred TB test for children under the age of five.
TB blood tests are also called interferon-gamma release assays or IGRAs. Two TB blood tests are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are available in the United States: the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) and the T-SPOT®.TB test (T-Spot).
A health care provider will draw a patient&rsquos blood and send it to a laboratory for analysis and results.